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  • Weekly Takeaways-August 10, 2022

    Time to Save the World Timing synchronization provides the grease for efficient networks. This efficiency helps reduce power consumption, and, by extension, harmful emissions. While it is difficult to show the direct link between timing accuracy and power consumption, some case studies show the potential. For example, timing in data centers reduces the effort to work with distributed databases. A joint Facebook and NVIDIA project showed that “making the timekeeping 80x more precise made a distributed database run 3x faster - an incredible performance boost on the same server hardware, just from keeping more accurate and more reliable time.” This inspired them to set up the Time Appliance Project, stating that “Time is a key element to get the highest efficiency in a distributed system.” The benefits of synchronization also extend to power grids. A Norwegian power utility estimates that synchronized digital substations in power grids could help recover 9% of their energy, and the Swedish Transport Administration estimates that phase synchronization could result in a 1 TWh/year potential energy savings. Better timing = more efficiency = lower power consumption = reduced emissions = Save the World. Last Week's Theme: Timing is Everything Industry News China recently launched six new LEO satellites to provide quantum key distribution (QKD) from space as part of a larger global QKD network and a follow up to their groundbreaking quantum satellite launched in 2016. Buried within the $280B CHIPS and Science Act is $153M per year for quantum research, including $100M/year for a "Quantum Network Infrastructure," In addition, the US “Quantum Computing Cybersecurity Preparedness Act” is moving through Congress with the intent to force the “migration of Federal Government information technology systems to quantum-resistant cryptography.” The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs, also known as “America’s Seed Fund,” is in danger of expiring because it was not included in the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA). Research shows that SBIR and STTR “generated a 22 to 1 return on investment, including $347 billion in total economic impact and created more than 1.5 million jobs between 1995 and 2012,” an incredible return on the $4B/year investment. Meanwhile, the US Small Business Administration (SBA) announced that they awarded a record $154.2B to small businesses, an $8B increase from last years. This represents nearly 27.2% of total federal contracting funds and “has supported over one million jobs in the American economy.” Following on news that VC fundraising in 2022 is on pace to surpass last year’s record, there are signs that investment is moving out of the Silicon Valley amid claims that remote work is “profoundly weakening the Silicon Valley network effect.” "What if your internet connection used single photons to transmit bits of information? You would be enjoying the unprecedented features of a quantum network, including access to quantum computing nodes and high security." Check out the QED-C The Landscape of Quantum Networking webinar to learn more. Conferences Optics + Photonics, August 21 - 25, San Diego, CA ION GNSS+ 2022, September 19 - 23, Denver, CO IEEE Quantum Week 2022, September 18 - 23, Broomfield, CO APSCC 2022, October 18 - 20, Seoul, Korea Tough Tech Summit, October 27 - 28, Boston, MA International Timing and Sync Forum, November 7 - 10, Dusseldorf, Germany The More You Know... Did it feel like your day went by especially fast on Wednesday, June 29? That's because the Earth had the shortest day on record, completing one rotation in 1.59 milliseconds less than 24 hours. In general, over long periods of time the Earth's rotation slows down by a tiny bit. To keep the 24-hour day synced with the rotation, scientists will occasionally add leap seconds to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), the international time standard. However, in recent years the Earth's rotation has been mysteriously speeding up. So scientists may need to subtract a leap second rather than add one! But it doesn't matter to network operators like Google, Microsoft, Meta and Amazon. They want to scrap the leap second altogether because any discontinuous jump of that magnitude can wreak havoc with their networks. For the same reason, GPS time -- the current source of network timing -- doesn't use leap seconds That's why GPS time now differs from UTC time by 18 seconds.

  • Weekly Takeaways-July 29, 2022

    Theme of the Week Timing is Everything GPS was the borne out of the space age nearly a half a century ago. But for two decades we have known that something better is needed. Now, with the advancement of four core technologies, the conditions are ripe: Cheap access to space Commercial quantum communication systems The golden age of atomic clocks Ubiquitous space-based optical communications hardware The need for a better global timing system has been around since networks went digital. But you can't bake the perfect cake until the ingredients are ready. Timing is everything. Last Week's Theme: How to Transfer Time Industry News “Why Isn’t Russia jamming GPS harder in Ukraine?” There has been local jamming in Ukraine and even around Finland and Norway, but “Russian interference with GPS in Ukraine has not been nearly as aggressive as many observers had expected.” Last week a cybersecurity firm found a security flaw in a GPS vehicle tracker built by a Chinese firm that “if exploited, cut off a vehicle’s fuel, physically stop it, or surveil its movement.” This week the US Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) issued an alert on this tracker that potentially is used in 1.5M vehicles including 420,000 government vehicles. The fragility of GPS has spurred countries to prepare countermeasures. South Korea has started developing their own PNT network and is running a civil drill with GPS jamming. A quantum internet that will network quantum computers is likely decades away, but National Defense University researchers published a roadmap on how to get there. Only halfway through 2022, VC fundraising is set to surpass 2021 record, according to a PitchBook analysis. According to Euroconsult,“nearly a ton of smallsats will be launched per day between 2022-2031 as over 18,500 smallsats are placed on orbit.” A new Strategic Options task force was established on the Defense Science Board (DSB) to "rebalance intervention cost and benefit" and restore the U.S. military's "operational dominance." Conferences Small Satellite Conference, August 6 - 11, Logan, Utah Optics + Photonics, August 21 - 25, San Diego, CA ION GNSS+ 2022, September 19 - 23, Denver, CO IEEE Quantum Week 2022, September 18 - 23, Broomfield, CO APSCC 2022, October 18 - 20, Seoul, Korea Tough Tech Summit, October 27 - 28, Boston, MA International Timing and Sync Forum, November 7 - 10, Dusseldorf, Germany The More You Know... All networks rely on timing from GPS. So what happens when GPS goes down? Well, you hope it comes back online. And quickly. An outage of more than a few hours would result in the degradation, then loss, of the network. If you want your networks to last more than a few hours, you need to build in resiliency against an outage, known as holdover. And that can get expensive. There are a number of ways to do this, using multiple sources of timing independent of GPS. The two main options: Add very stable clocks, or multiple spatially separated GPS receivers, throughout the network. But that requires additional hardware as well as the design of a timing network. Buy a box that has multiple stable clocks disciplined to the GPS timing signal when it is available. But these units are expensive - exotic car expensive.

  • Weekly Takeaways-July 22, 2022

    Theme of the Week How to Transfer Time Imagine you want to synchronize your clock to a master clock. As we mentioned previously, synchronizing clocks that are close to each other is easy. The real challenge is synchronization over long distances. For this, you need time transfer. GPS is currently the main source of time synchronization over global distances. Each GPS satellite knows its position and time, and broadcasts it to the user. This signal is also used to calculate the distance to the satellite (see below). You will need this information from multiple satellites to triangulate your position and time. But if you only care about time, then one GPS satellite will work. Instead of calculating distance, you can calculate the time of flight from the satellite, and add it to the satellite time. Other time transfer methods work in a similar fashion: a reference clock sends a stable RF, ethernet, or optical signal, which the receiver uses to calculate the travel time. The accuracy of the time transfer is impacted by the signal quality, among other things, which tend to degrade over long distances. Last Week's Theme: Commercial Space Steps Up Industry News Before you can have people landing on the moon, you need a lunar GPS. China, Europe, and the US all recently announced separate plans for lunar position, navigation, and timing (PNT) satellites for the moon. Last week we mentioned the suspected Russian jamming of GPS in Norway, but a recent article (in Norwegian translated here) suggests the jamming is coordinated with cyber attacks. Sometimes the problems with GPS are with shoddy ground terminals. Researchers found a security flaw in a GPS vehicle tracker built by a Chinese firm that “can be easily exploited to track and remotely cut the engines of at least a million vehicles around the world.” Another solar storm hit the Earth on Thursday. So far the impacts have been minimal, but the disturbance could make “GPS reception a bit dicey, especially near dawn and dusk.” A recent report claims that the “U.S. remains the leading country in quantum computing development, but China is aiming to catch up, with $10 billion of investment claimed in the period to 2030.” The US budget for quantum information science (QIS) research was roughly $900M in fiscal 2022, almost double the amount spent in 2019, with much of this funding from the 2018 National Quantum Initiative Act. Despite the market downturn, venture investment is still holding up. According to PitchBook, US VC funds closed over $120B through the first half of 2022 propelled by “sustained momentum from the end of 2021,” and TechCrunch claims that “US venture capitalists have never had so much spare cash.” Meanwhile, investment in space startups dropped from $6.1B in Q2 2022 compared to $46.3B for all of 2021. Quantum communications technology can be used to securely deliver encryption keys, with another potential application: quantum-secure ATMs. Conferences Small Satellite Conference, August 6 - 11, Logan, Utah Optics + Photonics, August 21 - 25, San Diego, CA ION GNSS+ 2022, September 19 - 23, Denver, CO IEEE Quantum Week 2022, September 18 - 23, Broomfield, CO APSCC 2022, October 18 - 20, Seoul, Korea Tough Tech Summit, October 27 - 28, Boston, MA International Timing and Sync Forum, November 7 - 10, Dusseldorf, Germany The More You Know... How to Transfer Time Part II So how does time transfer from GPS work? The GPS signal contains a pseudorandom code (sequence of ones and zeros) that is sent to the receiver. The receiver knows this code and creates its own version. By comparing the offset from the satellite and the receiver code, you know the difference in time. This can be used to calculate distance using the speed of light, or the receiver time. Credit: Department of Geography, The Pennsylvania State University Other time transfer methods work in a similar fashion with added complexity to improve performance. But the accuracy is fundamentally limited by: Time of travel changes through the medium of travel. The ability to receive a good quality signal. The quality of the transmitter and receiver. The accuracy of the reference clock. In addition, for high accuracy time transfer between moving platforms (say, from a satellite like GPS), Doppler and relativistic effects must also be carefully taken into account.

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  • Our Team | Xairos Systems Inc.

    DAVID MITLYNG, CEO DR. JAMES TROUPE, CHIEF QUANTUM SCIENTIST DR. FREY WILSON, QUANTUM SCIENTIST ALEXANDRA PINTO, SYSTEMS ARCHITECT & Business Development Team CHRISTIE CAZES, BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT COORDINATOR

  • Investor Kit | Xairos

    Investor Kit If your vision of the future includes autonomous vehicles, IOT, and gigabit speed cell networks, you need Xairos as a solution. Our Team David Mitlyng CEO, Co-founder David Mitlyng is the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) at Xairos Systems, Inc. (Xairos) a startup building a global timing service that is more accurate and secure than timing from GPS. David has 25 years of experience in the space industry, including Hughes Space and Communications, Orbital ATK, SSL, and BridgeSat. David has a BS in Aeronautical Engineering from Cal Poly SLO, a MS in Aeronautics and Astronautics from Stanford University, and an MBA from the MIT Sloan School of Management. ​ Podcast Links: Kratos podcast “Quantum Communications, “Spooky” Quantum Entanglement, and Applications in the Space Industry”, https://www.kratosdefense.com/constellations-podcast/quantum-communications-spooky-quantum-entanglement-applications-in-the-space-industry “Space Economy and Investment Trends: The New Space Perspective”, APSCC Panel moderated by SQT, October 28, 2020 https://apsccsat.com/apsccwebinar-on-demand/session201028/ Articles: NASA award for SQT: https://sbir.nasa.gov/SBIR/abstracts/20/sbir/phase1/SBIR-20-1-H9.05-6535.html Startup stars shine light on space communication, Colorado Springs Business Journal, July 12, 2019, https://www.csbj.com/2019/07/12/startup-stars-shine-light-on-space-communication/ Quantum Key Distribution – in Space!, Apogeo Spatial, November 17, 2019, http://apogeospatial.com/quantum-key-distribution-in-space/ “Quantum Communications in Space: A Deeper Dive”, SQT interview, https://www.kratosdefense.com/constellations-podcast/articles/quantum-communications-in-space-a-deeper-dive Dr. James Troupe Chief Quantum Scientist, Co-founder Dr. Troupe holds a Ph.D. in Computational Sciences from Chapman University specializing in the application of foundational quantum mechanical concepts to information processing and sensing. In addition, James holds a Master’s degree in Physics from Tulane University and a B.S. in Physics from the University of New Orleans. James has worked in applied quantum science for almost 20 years, first as a civilian physicist for the U.S. Navy and DoD, then as a scientist at the Applied Research Laboratories of the University of Texas at Austin, and now as Chief Scientist at Xairos. Selected Papers: J. Lee, L. Shen, A. Cerè, J. Troupe, A. Lamas-Linares, C. Kurtsiefer, "Symmetrical clock synchronization with time-correlated photon pairs", Appl. Phys. Lett. 114, 101102 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5086493 A. Lamas-Linares, J. Troupe, "Secure quantum clock synchronization". SPIE Proceedings Volume 10547, Advances in Photonics of Quantum Computing, Memory, and Communication XI; 105470L (2018). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2290561 A. N. Jordan, J. Tollaksen, J. E. Troupe, J. Dressel, Y. Aharonov, "Heisenberg scaling with weak measurement: A quantum state discrimination point of view". Quantum Studies: Mathematical and Foundations, Vol. 2, pp. 5-15 (2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40509-015-0036-8 J. E. Troupe, "Quantum key distribution using sequential weak values". Quantum Studies: Mathematical and Foundations, Vol. 1, pp.76-96 (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40509-014-0003-9 D. Parks, S. E. Spence, J. E. Troupe, N. J. Rodecap, "Tripartite loss model for Mach-Zender interferometers with application to phase sensitivity". Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 76, 043103 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1879332 Dr. Frey Wilson Quantum Scientist Dr. Frey Wilson (Quantum Scientist) has a Master’s in Phys Physics in Nanotechnology from the University of Leeds and PhD in Post quantum cryptography for satellite communication (Or TLDR - quantum communications). During her PhD she worked on a spin out (previously Cryptographiq, now Cavero) developing an implementation of secure key exchange over wireless comms. Since then, she has spent a few years working in the cybersecurity industry doing security testing of everything from national comms infrastructure to individual company networks, with Huawei CSEC and then Claranet, which in the later period expanded into security training and advice. She has maintained an active interest in supporting existing industries to embrace quantum technologies, lecturing, and speaking at conferences. Dr. Frey works to support deep tech start-ups, such as Xairos, to bring exciting new products to market, with some cybersecurity training delivery on the side! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YfYaDbsK74E Selected Paper: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/344855066_Quantum_secrecy_in_thermal_states_II

  • Come Join the Team | Xairos Systems Inc.

    If you can't wait to peer into the box... Come join us. ​ Xairos offers: A competitive benefits package with a 401K Employee Stock Option Plan Generous policies such as unlimited leave Flexible working schedule Relocation will be considered on a case-by-case basis. Not all positions require relocation however, some team members are required to travel to the Denver area one week per month for in-person team meetings and working sessions. Our lab will be located in the Denver Colorado area. All Xairos team members are required to be vaccinated. If you are interested in joining a team of hard-working collaborators and have the experience, we are looking for please email us your resume and a brief cover letter all about you to Jobs@xairos.com . Please include the job title you are applying to in the subject line. "Xairos Systems, Inc. is an equal opportunity employer. All applicants will be considered for employment without attention to race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, veteran or disability status.” Open Positions Computer Software Engineer ​ The Computer Software Engineer, Applications will develop, create, and modify computer applications software or specialized utility programs. Supervisory Responsibilities: Oversees the work of programmers, technologists, technicians and other information systems staff. Conducts performance evaluations that are timely and constructive. Provides training and feedback as needed. Duties/Responsibilities: Collects information on project specifications, performance requirements, and known capabilities and limitations. Determines hardware system status and limitations by gathering and evaluating the information on a variety of factors including security and reporting needs. Reviews and modifies existing software to improve performance, correct errors, and conform to compatibility requirements of available hardware. Determines feasibility of proposed application modifications or design, ensuring the needs and requirements of the user will be met within time and cost requirements Designs applications and systems to meet the project requirements, collaborating with systems analysts, engineers, programmers, and other developers as needed. Develops and leads software system testing and validation procedures; compiles relevant documentation. Trains, or provides training documentation to, users on new or modified applications. Performs other related duties as assigned. Required Skills/Abilities: Excellent verbal and written communication skills. Proficient in Microsoft Office Suite or related software. Organizational skills with attention to detail. Ability to write computer programs for various purposes. Ability to analyze and address the needs of users. Thorough understanding of computer engineering principles and procedures. Ability to manage time and prioritize tasks. Python, MatLab, C++ Education and Experience: Bachelor’s degree in Computer and Information Sciences, Engineering, Computer Software Engineering, Computer Engineering Technologies, or related field required. Physical Requirements: Prolonged periods sitting at a desk and working on a computer. Some lifting of equipment may be required. ​ About Xairos: Xairos an early-stage but growing startup developing quantum communication systems around entanglement distribution. Xairos’s near-term focus is on quantum clock synchronization (QCS), an exclusive technology that provides very accurate and secure time transfer for position, navigation, and timing (PNT) applications. Leveraging existing contracts with the US Air Force, NASA, and Navy, Xairos has long-term plans to commercialize this important technology. ​ Xairos offers a competitive benefits package with a 401K. We have an Employee Stock Option Plan and offer generous policies such as unlimited leave. Relocation will be considered on a case-by-case basis. Our lab and US office will be located in the Denver Colorado area. S ome travel is required. If you are interested in joining a team of hard-working collaborators and have the experience, we are looking for please email us your resume and a brief cover letter all about you to jobs@xairos.com "Xairos Systems, Inc. is an equal opportunity employer. All applicants will be considered for employment without attention to race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, veteran or disability status.” Quantum Optics Lead Job Functions: Perform cutting-edge R&D for next-generation quantum communication systems, with a focus on entanglement distribution Contribute to experimental quantum optics research in collaborative projects Ability to conduct experimental research, both independently and on teams Design, model, setup, and test of free-space and/or fiber optic experiments Perform measurements, collect and summarize data, and present and discuss data with other team members. Must be able to work well in a dynamic team environment and possess strong communication skills. Desired Experience: Tabletop quantum optics experiments, especially single-photon sources and entangled photon sources Optical quantum information applications, e.g. quantum communication or computing (this is not a Quantum computing job) Single-photon detectors and analysis of single-photon data Data analysis in Python or other programming languages Space topics or applications, e.g. satellites, orbital mechanics, astronomy, atmospheric science, or space science Education: A Masters or Ph.D. in a field relevant to experimental optics, physics, or electrical engineering. ​ Physical Requirements: Prolonged periods sitting at a desk and working in a lab environment. Some lifting will be required. About Xairos: Xairos is an early-stage but growing startup developing quantum communication systems around entanglement distribution. Xairos’s near-term focus is on quantum clock synchronization (QCS), an exclusive technology that provides very accurate and secure time transfer for position, navigation, and timing (PNT) applications. Leveraging existing contracts with the US Air Force, NASA, and Navy, Xairos has long-term plans to commercialize this important technology. Xairos offers a competitive benefits package with a 401K. We have an Employee Stock Option Plan and offer generous policies such as unlimited leave. Relocation will be considered on a case-by-case basis. Our lab and US office will be located in the Denver Colorado area. Some travel is required. If you are interested in joining a team of hard-working collaborators and have the experience, we are looking for please email us your resume and a brief cover letter all about you to jobs@xairos.com "Xairos Systems, Inc. is an equal opportunity employer. All applicants will be considered for employment without attention to race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, veteran or disability status.”

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