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  • Weekly Takeaways-December 1, 2022

    Theme of the Week Did You Know? On October 18, GPS interference wreaked havoc at Dallas Fort Worth (DFW) International Airport. The nearly two day outage prompted the closure of a runway and has stumped experts. On January 21, a similar mysterious GPS outage disrupted flights at Denver International Airport for over thirty hours. For three days around March 5, flights were disrupted in Finland due to jamming that is suspected to have originated in Russia. In June 2019 a GPS outage near Salt Lake City nearly caused a passenger airplane accident. On January 26, 2016, a simple GPS operator error shut down emergency radios and nearly crashed networks around the world. A European program over three years tracked over 450,000 reported GPS outages, of which 59,000 were suspected of being caused by deliberate interference. No, this the first you are hearing about this? That is because GPS outages are not systematically tracked, much less reported to the public. The media has started to report on Russia's jamming and threats to blow up GPS as part of their Ukraine coverage. But local outages that are disrupting travel, communications, and power grids, never make it into the news. This spurred the US National PNT Advisory Board to ask the Department of Transportation “to warn the public as soon as possible when GPS services were being disrupted.” As it stands today, there is no incentive to be responsive to commercial users. Conversely, there is no recourse for commercial users impacted by outages. A commercial alternative is needed. Last Week's Theme: A Sputnik Moment Industry News Another three GPS satellites were ordered from Lockheed for only $744M, bringing the total to $2.5B for seven latest gen GPS satellites. But even at that price point GPS is still a fragile system. Open collaboration is encouraged to develop a quantum internet, which includes working together on quantum networking test beds. In Tennessee, EPB and Qubitekk announced a test bed for “America’s first industry-led, commercially available quantum network.” In New York, Stony Brook University announced a new Quantum Internet Test Bed. And Singapore just opened a Quantum Networks Experience Centre. The sun is nearing a peak of a coronal mass ejections (CME) cycle, which have been blamed for the loss of 40 Starlink satellites and even train delays. The More You Know... Last week we highlighted how China is determined to win a new space race with the United States. Consider this: A US Space Force general warned that China "could catch up and surpass us, absolutely. The progress they've made has been stunning." China recently announced their lunar and deep space ambitions, including a permanent moon base by 2035. Meanwhile, NASA hopes to get a crew to the moon “as early as 2025 or 2026,” and Europe is planning a lunar lander “capable of routinely dispatching science payloads and cargo to the Moon throughout the 2030s.” China is the undisputed leader in satellite quantum communications. To maintain an edge in this race, US government officials are starting to look towards the commercial sector. Earlier this year the US Space Systems Command established the Commercial Services Office with the stated intention to “exploit what we have, buy what we can and only build what we must.” This also includes looking at commercial options for GPS: “We see markets emerging for alternative PNT solutions even though GPS is inherently governmental today.”

  • Weekly Takeaways-November 21, 2022

    Theme of the Week A Sputnik Moment The new space race is underway, and in many respects China has taken a lead. China is the clear leader in quantum satellites as shown in this list compiled by Russ Fein. They performed ground-breaking quantum experiments on their 2016 Micius satellite, and recently launched their third quantum satellite with more on the way. While the US has one quantum payload in orbit, it does not have a quantum link with the ground. This is well behind quantum satellites already underway in China, Europe, Singapore, Canada, and UK. At least the US is the leader in position, navigation and timing (PNT) satellites - for now. While GPS has been the PNT standard for nearly five decades, China is catching up fast. Their BeiDou constellation of “24 MEO satellites, three Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites, and three Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites" may offer “global decimeter-level positioning and navigation” and “underwater, indoor and deep space coverage.” This is better than GPS, which is accurate to 2 meters (20 decimeters) in open sky conditions. But clearly the US has a plan to keep up - right? Last Week's Theme: A Modern Horror Story Achievements Thank you Colorado Office of Economic Development and International Trade (OEDIT) and Business Finland for the opportunity to join the Colorado quantum delegation to Finland! Great chance to explore collaboration opportunities with the Finnish quantum community. Industry News China released a "China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System in the New Era” white paper that claims that BeiDou “has been built into a world-class navigation system” and it’s next generation design “will give unprecedented accuracy and coverage for a range of services, including mobile phone access,” and “would extend its services to include underwater communications and deep space.” Meanwhile, Europe announced a new LEO PNT satellite constellation to augment their Galileo constellation. China is also surging in quantum computing patents, increasing from “137 as of September 2020 to 804 by October 2022.” China now accounts for 15 percent of global quantum computing patents, behind the United States (40 percent), and ahead of Japan (11 percent). A “State of the Quantum 2022” report claims that “shows that 91% of business leaders are investing or planning to invest in quantum computing, a field in which private investment has grown 500% from a total of $0.4 billion in 2017 to $2.2 billion in 2021.” This is corroborated by a separate survey where 81% of organizations claimed to have plans or candidates for quantum computing by next year. According to NASA, we are now in the “Decade of Light” where optical communications enables new satellite systems, “but the 2030s will be the Decade of Quantum. There are a lot of technologies that are being developed now to enable us to move seamlessly to the next decade.” Another good QED-C Quantum Marketplace webinar focused on Quantum Networks as a follow up to a previous webinar, including quantum networking leaders like AWS, GE, Verizon, Accenture, Deloitte, and EPB. Conferences Time and Money Conference, January 17, New York, New York Photonics West and Quantum West, January 28 - February 2, San Francisco, CA Workshop on Synchronization and Timing Systems, March 13 - 16, Vancouver, Canada Satellite 2023, March 13 - 16, Washington DC Space Symposium, April 17 - 20, Colorado Springs, CO The More You Know... Goodbye leap second! The world’s timekeepers voted recently to stop using leap seconds, an artifice to help keep official time in line with the rotation of the Earth. If the Earth maintained a rotation rate of 86,400 seconds per day this wouldn’t be necessary. But the Earth has a habit of slowing down, or, lately, speeding up. Network operators have longed argued that we should scrap the leap second. Even a discontinuity as small as one second can wreak havoc with their networks: “The leap second change triggered a massive Reddit outage in 2012, as well as related problems at Mozilla, LinkedIn, Yelp and airline booking service Amadeus. In 2017, a leap second glitch at network infrastructure company Cloudflare knocked a fraction of customers' servers offline.” Fortunately, the main source of network timing comes from GPS, which doesn't use leap seconds. Because of this GPS time has diverged by 18 seconds from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). But at least that gap won't change going forward.

  • Weekly Takeaways-Halloween 2022

    David Mitlyng Theme of the Week A Modern Horror Story - Part 1 Last Halloween we presented a true-life scary tale: You wake up. Emergency and rescue radios are down. Your location app is offline and planes are grounded worldwide. You attempt to go shopping, but the credit card isn't working. The ATM is down, too. As the day progresses both cell and internet service is lost, stores and restaurants are closed, and you can't even get gas. By the next morning the power is out. The cause? GPS is down. Like any good horror story, here come's the sequel: A Modern Horror Story - Part 2 Unfortunately, this doomsday scenario seems closer than ever. Since then the Russia rolled into Ukraine and promptly started jamming GPS. They launched anti-satellite missiles and threatened to blow up GPS and commercial satellites. Local GPS outages have grounded flights at Dallas Fort Worth (DFW) International Airport, Denver International Airport, and Finland. The fear is real and governments around the world are working to prevent this. Last Week's Theme: Time as National Infrastructure Industry News As mentioned previously, GPS interference caused the FAA to reroute DFW air traffic. The nearly two day outage prompted the closure of a runway and has stumped experts. The war in Ukraine has allowed commercial space companies to provide critical support, including satellite imagery and communication links. Russia has responded with cyberattacks, jamming, and even threats to blow up commercial satellites. Two European Commission-sponsored quantum network initiatives were announced: the Quantum Internet Alliance and the HYPERSPACE research project. A couple of articles look at the impact of quantum computers: an article about military applications for quantum computing, and an Economist paper on commercial applications for quantum computing: “Overhyped or Underestimated: Preparing for a Quantum Future” One application for quantum computing is cracking public key infrastructure, the so-called Y2Q. The US government is taking steps to prepare, including issuing an executive order, two national security memorandums (NSM-8 and NSM-10), and the introduction of the Quantum Computing Cybersecurity Preparedness Act (H.R.7535). Meanwhile the Chicago Quantum Exchange hosted a voting demonstration using quantum secure communications. Quantum is endlessly fascinating but hard to understand, so be careful where you get your information. For example, maybe avoid the quantum mysticism on TikTok. 💼 Conferences International Timing and Sync Forum, November 7 - 10, Dusseldorf, Germany UK Quantum Technology Showcase, November 11, London, England Slush 2022, November 17 - 18, Helsinki, Finland Time and Money Conference, January 17, New York, New York Photonics West and Quantum West, January 28 - February 2, San Francisco, CA Workshop on Synchronization and Timing Systems, March 13 - 16, Vancouver, Canada 🎓 The More You Know... Spooky Action at a Distance - Part 2 The famous Einstein quote "spooky action at a distance" expressed his disbelief that the apparent "non-local" action of measuring certain (entangled) quantum states was a real effect. Einstein favored the idea that hidden local variables are at work and capable of removing these non-local effects. The implication being that quantum mechanics was an incomplete description of reality that resulting from averaging over these local hidden variables. The 2022 Nobel prize in physics was awarded to scientists that are pioneers in experimentally testing the idea of local hidden variables through clever experiments utilizing entangled photons. These experiments used a mathematical relation developed by John Stewart Bell. Now known as the Bell inequality, it showed that any such hoped for local hidden variable theory could not reproduce all of the predictions of quantum mechanics. Thus, Bell's inequality said it was possible in principle to experimentally test if the actual world corresponds to the predictions of quantum mechanics or of some deeper theory that uses local, hidden variables. What seemed to be a philosophical question was now potentially an experimental one. The three newest physics laureates pioneered ways to experimentally test Bell's inequality. The results have all shown that Bell's Inequality is clearly violated, thus experimentally ruling out all physical theories using local hidden variables. The consequences of this for understanding quantum mechanics are that if we want to imagine a deeper theory that explains the outcomes of individual experiments (thus removing or explaining the fundamental randomness of quantum mechanics) then we're forced to believe in "spooky action at a distance", i.e. quantum-nonlocality. Viable alternatives to this are at least as "spooky". We can deny that quantum systems (and by extension everything​!) have properties independent of how we choose to measure them. This view implies that at least some measurements of quantum systems are acts of creation -- not merely processes to reveal preexisting information (examples are neo-Copenhagen and QBism interpretations). Our other possibility is to take the view that all possible outcomes of every quantum measurement actually do exist, but the different outcomes define (mostly independent) parallel branches of an ever-expanding universe. While we as humans can only perceive a single branch among them. This is roughly the Many Worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. Which flavor of spookiness is the "correct" way of understanding quantum mechanics? We don't yet have a way of experimentally distinguishing them. So, the quest goes on! The strange saga of Zombie Sat - Part 2 Last year we reported on the story of the infamous Galaxy 15 "Zombie Sat", a satellite that decided to stopped taking orders over a decade ago. For eight torturous months the unresponsive satellite lumbered across the GEO arc before finally rebooting. Intelsat put the satellite back in service and the zombie was re-born again. Well, in another twist in the saga, Galaxy 15 recently became a zombie once again. Rather than trying to reanimate the corpse of this satellite, this time Intelsat has decided to put it out of its misery.

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  • Our Team | Xairos Systems Inc.


  • Our Advisory Board | Xairos

    Meet Our Advisory Board Nino De Falcis Nino De Falcis is an expert in the time, frequency and synchronization industry with over 25 years of experience working for several industry-related companies. He specializes in secure, resilient PNT for critical infrastructure, enterprise and data center/could sync, time SaaS, GPS/GNSS time server, NTP/PTP client/server sync, 5G/IoT sync, optical network sync, SMPTE sync, cybersecurity, AI/ML sync, and DLT timestamping. Nino holds a BSE in EE and software and an MBA. Dr. Pooser Dr. Pooser is an expert in continuous variable quantum information. He is a Distinguished scientist in the Quantum Computing and Sensing group within the Quantum Information Science Section at ORNL. His research interests include quantum computing, networking, and sensing. Over the past ten years, he developed a quantum sensing program at ORNL from the ground up based on continuous-variable quantum networks. He has been working to demonstrate that continuous variable quantum optics, quantum noise reduction in particular, has important uses in the quantum information field. The deterministic nature of these systems is a strong draw and motivator that leads to practical applications, and this research model uses quantum sensors as a showcase for the technologies that will enable quantum computing. Notable achievements include demonstrations of quantum plasmonic sensors with signal-to-noise ratios that exceed the classical state of the art, the first demonstrations quantum-enhanced read-out of atomic force microscope cantilevers, and the first practical applications of nonlinear interferometry. Dr. Pooser has twenty years of quantum information science experience. Prior to his post as a research scientist, he served as a distinguished Wigner Fellow at ORNL. He previously worked as a postdoctoral fellow in the Laser Cooling and Trapping Group at NIST after receiving his PhD in Engineering Physics from the University of Virginia. He received a B.S. in Physics from New York University. Chris Green Chris Green is a project and structured finance expert with over 25 years in banking and advisory experiance. Chris has been based in Hong Kong since 2001, originally with Citibank and then migrating to HSBC in 2005. In 2014, Chris took on an Asia Head role with Portland Advisors and subsequently moved over to Xairos in 2021. During his tenure in Asia, Chris has led a number of large, complex advisory and arranging transactions in the space sector, typically working with early stage companies and greenfield projects. Over the course of his career Chris has completed over $25 billion in arranging and advisory transactions in the infrastructure space. Chris is now in the process of migrating back to the United States with Xairos. He holds a MALD in International Business from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Adam Sturmer Adam Sturmer is a space risk management and satellite insurance expert. Adam has a Master of Engineering qualification and works in a globally leading space insurance broking company based in London. Adam initially started in 2004 as a technical risk analyst and broker. Having lived in Singapore for over 6 years and New York for 3 years, Adam has now worked with the majority of the global satellite operators, manufacturers and launch service providers. Today, Adam is based back in London and is Global Head of Sales for the Space broking division. He also works with many space start-ups to help them obtain their business objectives by managing program risk throughout the satellite's lifecycle.

  • Xairos Systems, Inc. | Quantum Communications |

    SPACE. QUANTUM. LASERS. Quantum Time Synchronization for Secure Communications High Precision, High Security, Time Distribution, on a Global Scale. ​ The Problem Modern networks rely on timing from GPS, which is not secure or accurate enough. The Solution A global timing service that is orders of magnitude more accurate and secure. The Value Removes risk of communication outages and increases bandwidth and throughput. ARTICLES Weekly Takeaways-December 1, 2022 Weekly Takeaways DAVID MITLYNG 4 days ago 2 min Weekly Takeaways-November 21, 2022 Weekly Takeaways DAVID MITLYNG Nov 21 3 min Weekly Takeaways-Halloween 2022 Weekly Takeaways DAVID MITLYNG Oct 31 4 min Weekly Takeaways-October 19, 2022 Weekly Takeaways DAVID MITLYNG Oct 19 4 min Weekly Takeaways-September 28,2022 Weekly Takeaways DAVID MITLYNG Sep 27 3 min Weekly Takeaways-September 20, 2022 Weekly Takeaways DAVID MITLYNG Sep 19 2 min Weekly Takeaways-September 15, 2022 Weekly Takeaways DAVID MITLYNG Sep 14 3 min Weekly Takeaways-September 9,2022 Weekly Takeaways DAVID MITLYNG Sep 8 3 min Weekly Takeaways-August 25, 2022 Weekly Takeaways DAVID MITLYNG Aug 24 3 min Weekly Takeaways-August 10, 2022 Weekly Takeaways DAVID MITLYNG Aug 9 3 min Weekly Takeaways-July 29, 2022 Weekly Takeaways David Mitlyng Jul 29 2 min Weekly Takeaways-July 22, 2022 Weekly Takeaways David Mitlyng Jul 21 3 min powered by

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