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  • Weekly Takeaways-March 9, 2023

    Theme of the Week Time, Navigation and Hegemony When the British Empire was at its peak, a small island with only 2.5% of the world population held sway over a quarter of the world. They achieved this through a navy that dominated the seas thanks, in part, to the marine chronometer. This accurate timepiece revolutionized navigation and enabled the Age of Discovery by solving the longitude problem. Fast forward a century to the beginnings of GPS. What started as an experiment in creating “lighthouses in the sky” worked so well that it was made available for civilian use right as networks were moving from analog to digital and needed a clock. This happy accident created the "largest venture outcome in history” and trillions of dollars of economic benefit. It is now embedded in all aspects of our modern world: travel, communications, financial transactions, and power grids all rely on it. But GPS, and other global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), have a limit. Their signals don’t work well in urban canyons and buildings, which limits the advancement of self-driving vehicles, delivery drones, industrial robots, and disaggregated networks. Better timing still has the potential to unlock new opportunities - even on the moon. Last Week's Theme: Unlocking Potential Industry News An Australian think tank released a report that claims that “China has a 'stunning lead' over the US in the research of 37 out of 44 critical and emerging technologies,” and is the leader in quantum communications, advanced optical communications, and quantum sensors. According to The Quantum Insider, China isn’t just beating the US and the rest of the world in quantum research spending, it is also beating everyone as a percentage of GDP. China’s quantum investment is 0.088% of their GDP, well ahead of the US at 0.012% of GDP. If the US wants to keep up with China, some groups are advocating the need to utilize innovation from the commercial sector: National Space Council Executive Secretary Chirag Parikh: “The Venn diagram of civil, commercial and national security (space) is becoming more and more overlapped, and the real reason for that … is the value that commercial space services are providing to the economy, it’s providing to our civil capacity and it’s providing to our national security capacity.” US Space Force vice chief of space operations David Thompson: “The national security space enterprise, the national security enterprise and the U.S. Space Force need to use commercial space capabilities directly in support of the nation’s security.” Deloitte Government & Public Services CTO Scott Buchholz:“Revolutionary technologies from past eras — including the internet, GPS and touch screens — came to life with the support of robust federal funding and thoughtful regulations. For quantum technologies to mature in a way that drives tangible, safe and positive change for the American people, they will need the same kind of government support and regulation that benefitted other technologies.” The US National Cybersecurity Strategy “acknowledges the importance of positioning, navigation, and timing” with a strong push for resiliency in networks and systems through public-private partnerships and support for the commercial sector. The solar storms continue, causing GPS disruptions, radio blackouts, and even delaying a recent SpaceX rocket launch. But at least SpaceX learned their lesson after a solar storm destroyed 40 of their satellites last year. The concern with solar storms is of a coronal mass ejection (CME) similar to the Carrington Event, with “estimates that in the next 10 years there is a 35% to 45% chance a CME will disrupt GPS service for up to several days. The cost to our nation and economy will be measured in the billions of dollars,” according to the deputy director of the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Conferences Workshop on Synchronization and Timing Systems, March 13 - 16, Vancouver, Canada Satellite 2023, March 13 - 16, Washington DC Commercialising Quantum US, March 23 - 24, San Francisco, CA Space Symposium, April 17 - 20, Colorado Springs, CO Commercialising Quantum Global, May 17 - 19, London UK Quantum 2.0 Conference, Denver, CO, June 18 - 22 The More You Know... One of the problems with GPS is that it is too embedded in our modern world to change. But that doesn’t stop other countries. The GPS signal is already readily available, so they have a clean slate to build something better. Case in point: China’s BeiDou global navigation satellite system (GNSS). Only operational since 2020, the BeiDou constellation is now the world’s largest GNSS. Not only is BeiDou nominally more accurate than GPS, it also demonstrated optical links and offers Global Short Message Communication and Search-and-Rescue Services. BeiDou officials also announced future plans for “global decimeter-level positioning and navigation” and “underwater, indoor and deep space coverage.” But these advancements aren’t the only concerns highlighted in a recent Harvard report, “China’s BeiDou: New Dimensions of Great Power Competition.” China is wielding it as a soft power tool, “encouraging foreign nations to rely on BeiDou for civilian uses.” Meanwhile, the report laments that the US “Department of Defense (DOD) plans for GPS modernization are not focused on advancing U.S. economic or diplomatic interests.”

  • Weekly Takeaways March 23, 2023

    Necessity is the Mother of Invention Advances in timekeeping have always been spurred by necessity. The original calendars were developed with the advent of agriculture. Water clocks and sundials helped organize early shopkeepers and trade. Pendulum clocks kept merchants and prayer schedules on time. The marine chronometer helped sailors solve the longitude problem. Pocket watches kept trains running on time. And wristwatches were popularized by soldiers and aviators. GPS was slightly different; it was built first, then the application followed. It was only a happy accident that it provided a master clock just as networks moved from analog to digital. And it was incredibly successful in that role, enabling 4G LTE, financial transactions and power grids. But it has reached a limit. 5G timing standards were written around GPS’ capabilities with expensive hardware. For 6G and beyond, another advancement is needed. Last Week's Theme: Time, Navigation and Hegemony Industry News The UK released their $2.5B National Quantum Strategy to“fund new frontiers of quantum research, support and develop our growing quantum sector, prepare our wider economy for the quantum revolution and ensure that the UK leads internationally in the regulation and ethical use of quantum technologies.” China seems to have started local GPS jamming over the Pacific Ocean near their ships, according to reports from Qantas Airways pilots. A recent article summarizes China’s space ambitions and argues that “China is in a position to dominate the future of space and replace the US as the number one space nation in the world.” The sixth of ten GPS Block III satellites was put into operation recently while the Air Force launched their experimental Navigation Technology Satellite-3. Conferences Workshop on Synchronization and Timing Systems, March 13 - 16, Vancouver, Canada Satellite 2023, March 13 - 16, Washington DC Commercialising Quantum US, March 23 - 24, San Francisco, CA Space Symposium, April 17 - 20, Colorado Springs, CO Assured Positioning, Navigation and Timing (APNT) Summit, May 10 - 11, National Harbor, MD Commercialising Quantum Global, May 17 - 19, London UK Quantum 2.0 Conference, June 18 - 22, Denver, CO Q4I, June 27 – 29, Rome, New York Small Satellite, August 5 – 10, Logan, Utah Euroconsult, September 11 – 15, Paris, France APSCC, October 10 – 12, KL, Malaysia ITSF, Oct 30 – Nov 2, Antwerp, Belgium UK National Quantum Technologies Showcase 2023, Nov 2, London, UK SLUSH, Nov 30 – Dec 1, Helsinki, Finland Industry News The UK released their $2.5B National Quantum Strategy to “fund new frontiers of quantum research, support and develop our growing quantum sector, prepare our wider economy for the quantum revolution and ensure that the UK leads internationally in the regulation and ethical use of quantum technologies.” China seems to have started local GPS jamming over the Pacific Ocean near their ships, according to reports from Qantas Airways pilots. A recent article summarizes China’s space ambitions and argues that “China is in a position to dominate the future of space and replace the US as the number one space nation in the world.” In light of a recent report that claims that “China has a 'stunning lead' over the US" in critical and emerging technologies, the US Department of Defense set up the Office of Strategic Capital “to encourage investment in cutting-edge technology.” They recently announced that they will work with the Small Business Administration to leverage “the full faith and credit” of the federal government to guarantee loans to innovative firms. The More You Know... One of the key takeaways from the WSTS conference is the need for alternative timing sources to GPS. But within the government sector there is also concern about vulnerability of GPS in case of a future conflict: The Office of the Director of National Intelligence “Annual Threat Assessment” “highlights China’s space capabilities as one element of the country’s larger quest for global dominance”. US Senator Angus King (I-Maine) grilled the commander of the US Space Command, Gen. James H. Dickinson, about the vulnerability of GPS: “I believe GPS will be one of the first targets in a conflict… We’ve got to have a high priority on having alternatives to GPS, it seems to me,” warned Senator King. General Dickenson confirmed that they are “looking to alternative PNT – alternative position navigation and timing – and how we can develop those types of capabilities.” The Department of Defense CIO, John Sherman, said it’s imperative the U.S. has alternative PNT systems ready to go if GPS is disrupted. “The thing I talk about often is our potential adversaries also know how much we rely on GPS. The adversary is going to try to come at it on day one of any potential conflict.” The director of staff for the US Space Force, Lt. Gen. Nina Armagno, is worried that new sophisticated weapons make it harder to detect a malicious attack on GPS satellites: “There are ground based jamming capabilities that Russia and China have, ground based laser dazzler capabilities that they have… It doesn't damage the optics. But a stronger laser, which they're working on, could damage not only, you know, the sensitive optics, but could also take out a solar array.” The chief of space operations of the US Space Force, Gen. B. Chance Saltzman, worried that large US satellites in fixed orbits “makes them particularly vulnerable to direct attack…If you complicate targeting, you get resiliency, you raise the threshold for attack, which equates to deterrence…So it’s the idea of going to smaller satellites and proliferating our missions across multiple larger constellations that really gives us a more resilient architecture.” The deputy commander of US Space Command, Lt. Gen. John Shaw, worries that the U.S. relies on satellites “to project power across the planet and they’re not all that well defended. So we should not be surprised that we’re under threat. We have to completely rethink how we do our space architectures. We’re probably gonna have to be more nimble.” The commander of US Space Forces Indo-Pacific, Brig. Gen. Anthony Mastalir, claims that China has put up a lot of satellites just within the last five to six years, including surveillance systems “designed to find, track and target U.S. forces and allied forces.” The weekly takeaways are sent out weekly to our Paperstreet community. To receive a copy of the weekly takeaways please visit us on paperstreet.

  • Weekly Takeaways-March 29,2023

    Theme of the Week A Chain is only as Strong as its Weakest Link. The latest advancements in clocks and timing systems were on full display at the recent Workshop on Synchronization and Timing Systems (WSTS). Throughout history, better clocks have enabled advancements in technology and commerce. In the last decade there have been rapid advancements in commercial clocks for network timing and PNT applications (see below). Today’s chip-scale atomic clocks are stable to better than a nanosecond (one billionth of a second) per month, and larger clocks drift less than a picosecond (one trillionth of a second) per month. But these individual clocks still need to be synchronized. WSTS presenters talked about all the latest advancements in local synchronization technology, including white rabbit, AI-enhanced PTP, and timing over 5G, wi-fi and terrestrial beacons. But synchronization over global distances have not kept pace with these advancements. This is the role (reluctantly) taken by GPS, which has been practically limited for decades at tens of nanoseconds and prone to costly outages. The next big step is global resilient and sub-nanosecond synchronization architecture. Last Week's Theme: Necessity is the Mother of Invention Industry News A recent Harvard report “China’s BeiDou: New Dimensions of Great Power Competition” describes how China is using BeiDou to one-up GPS in capability and as a soft power tool. Now there are reports of China’s jamming of GPS over the western Pacific and South China Sea that are creating issues with Qantas flights and a US Navy aircraft carrier. Check out this Association of Old Crows podcast “Navigating Our Dependency on GPS” to learn a little bit about the long history of GPS spoofing. “GPS started out in the words of its chief architect Brad Parkinson, as an effort to put five bombs into one hole. It was definitely a military capability but it very quickly it became a civilian capability also.” The European Commission Science Joint Research Centre (JRC) “Assessing Alternative Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Technologies for Potential Deployment in the EU” policy report noted that “although widely used, GNSS technology suffers from unique shortcomings, and without alternatives in place, the effects of an outage would be far-reaching and damaging to the European economy.” The main topic of discussion at the 15th European Space Conference was space security with a special focus on the vulnerability of GNSS. “One year ago, we were just on the eve of war. Now, we are in the middle of a war, so the security of Europe in space is a very timely subject.” In testimony before the US Senate, Department of Defense officials discussed plans to increase small business engagement with the defense industrial base, saying that "this is an economic and national security risk for our nation," so are "working to strengthen our small business supply chains, increase competition and attract new entrants." The More You Know... Clocks have been improving in leaps and bounds over the past decade. Most of these advancements were funded by government agencies that needed stable clocks for science applications, position and navigation systems, and radar, communication and sensor arrays. In the modern era, the atomic clocks have set the standard for clock stability. Atomic clocks measure “time by monitoring the resonant frequency of atoms” based on their different energy levels. The original atomic clocks from the 1950s were based on a transition of the cesium-133 atom, but today use elements that offer greater stability (hydrogen) and smaller size (rubidium). These clocks have since improved by five orders of magnitude, and today the NIST-F2 cesium fountain clock has an uncertainty of 1 second in 300 million years! But the race is on to reach better stability by leveraging new elements that transition at higher optical frequencies instead of microwave frequencies. These optical clocks “resonate on frequencies up to 100,000 times higher” than the cesium-133 atomic clocks, using elements like strontium, ytterbium, and even “nuclear” atoms. But who needs optical clocks when you have a steam clock? Weekly takeaways are sent out weekly to our Paperstreet community. To receive a copy of the weekly takeaways please visit us on our Xairos paperstreet site.

  • Weekly Takeaways: World Quantum Day 2023 Edition

    Theme of the Week Happy World Quantum Day! Two days ago we celebrated Yuri's Night by looking at the advances in the space industry since 1961. Today we celebrate World Quantum Day, designated to promote "public awareness and understanding of quantum science and technology around the world." April 14 isn't the anniversary of a major event, but a fun reference to the first digits of Planck’s constant (4.14 ×10−15 electronvolt seconds), the same way 3/14 is "Pi Day". There isn't a major anniversary to celebrate because there was no "first human in space" type of event to memorialize; quantum mechanics was developed through a combination of research, papers, thought and lab experiments, and rigorous debate over the last century. A lot of the early concepts were initially met with skepticism, but through this process, we have reached the point where we are manipulating the quantum properties of particles for practical and amazing applications. We are now in the midst of the Second Quantum Revolution. Quantum Technologies All quantum technologies leverage quantum properties and can be broken into three main branches: Quantum Computing – a new (but fundamentally different) type of computer that leverages the quantum properties of particles to create qubits that could solve previously intractable problems. Quantum Sensing (also sometimes referred to as Quantum Metrology) – uses the quantum properties of particles for very stable clocks and sensitive inertial, electromagnetic, gravity, and magnetic field sensors. Quantum Communications (also sometimes referred to as Quantum Networking) – leverage the quantum properties of photons (particles of light) for applications like quantum random number generation (useful for cryptography), quantum key distribution (the secure distribution of encryption keys), and Xairos’ focus: quantum time transfer (secure and accurate timing for PNT and networking applications). The Quantum Arms Race The incredible applications enabled by quantum technologies has created a sort of global quantum arms race, with $30B of sovereign funding in quantum research (according to QURECA) in 2022 across the globe: The United States: Focused on quantum networks and post-quantum cryptography, with the announcement of new quantum funding. New quantum testbeds were announced as part of public-private partnerships to develop quantum networks and research, including the EPB Quantum Network in Tennessee, the Washington Metropolitan Quantum Network Research Consortium (DC-QNet), the Chicago Quantum Exchange, and NY Quantum Internet Testbed. The Quantum Computing Cybersecurity Preparedness Act to develop “encryption strong enough to resist attacks from quantum computers” was signed into law. Europe: The European Commission (EC) announced two quantum network initiatives, the Quantum Internet Alliance and the HYPERSPACE research project, as well as a plan for a broadband constellation that will “leverage quantum encryption to secure the network.” The European Space Agency and SES announced the Eagle-1 quantum satellite. China: By some estimates (including recent McKinsey and Deloitte reports) China was the leader in global quantum funding. A recent report claims that “China has a 'stunning lead' over the US in the research of 37 out of 44 critical and emerging technologies,” including quantum communications and quantum sensors. As a comparison to their approach to quantum: China’s public spending on quantum is four times higher than the US. US private investment in quantum is over 1350% higher than in China. There are over 10x the number of quantum startups and 6x quantum investors in the US to China. Interestingly, China holds over 30% quantum patents than the US. However, the patents resided in the US are accredited in globally respected journals for their scientific impact and innovation. China is the leader in quantum satellites, launching their third quantum satellite as a follow-up to a quantum payload on Tiangong-2 and Micius quantum satellite. China is also rolling out a quantum network extending across the country. UK -released their $2.5B National Quantum Strategy. Singapore- opened a Quantum Networks Experience Centre and announced a National Quantum-Safe Network (NQSN) and new partnerships for their quantum satellite. South Korea -announced the development of quantum cryptography communication networks, while Samsung added quantum random number generation chips to enhance the security of their cell phones. Japan -unveiled a new quantum strategy and will “revamp its national quantum technology strategy, aiming to become self-sufficient in the area,” while also working with US partners. Australia - released their vision of a quantum future. India - allocated over $1B towards a National Mission on Quantum Technology and Applications (NMQTA), including a national quantum communication network. Taiwan - announced plans to invest $273M in quantum technology development. Russia – announced they are setting up a National Quantum Laboratory. Canada –announced a National Quantum Strategy including plans for the QEYSSat quantum satellite. The Quantum Divide The downside of this development: the growing quantum divide between the quantum haves (the 17 countries that are investing in quantum research) from the have-nots (everyone else). The World Economic Forum (WEF) believes that "quantum technology will exponentially accelerate the Fourth Industrial Revolution," and has raised calls for greater cooperation in quantum research between countries. And the Nobel Prize goes to... ...Alain Aspect, John F. Clauser and Anton Zeilinger, who were jointly award the 2022 Nobel Prize for their groundbreaking “experiments utilizing entangled photons to resolve a long-standing debate in the early history of quantum mechanics." That debate: the famous "spooky action at a distance" question that was settled with brilliant experiments that demonstrated Bell's inequality. Entanglement as a consequence of quantum mechanics was pointed out and elaborated on by Albert Einstein and colleagues in the famous 1935 EPR paper. But Einstein found the idea of nonlocal entanglement, the so-called “spooky action at a distance”, deeply problematic since, while it doesn't directly violate relativity, it certainly violates the spirit of local influences and causes at the conceptual heart of relativity. Because of this Einstein favored the idea that a local hidden variable was at work such that quantum mechanics was an incomplete description of reality resulting from an averaging over these local hidden variables. Nearly 30 years later, the physicist John Stewart Bell derived a mathematical relation, known as the Bell inequality, that demonstrated that any such local hidden variable theory could not reproduce all of the predictions of quantum mechanics. Thus, Bell's theorem said it was possible in principle to experimentally test if the actual world corresponds to the predictions of quantum mechanics or of some deeper theory that uses local, hidden variables. What seemed to be a philosophical question was now potentially an experimental one. However, "Bell’s inequality, while massively significant as a theoretical construct, was not at first of much use experimentally; the result itself of a thought experiment, it couldn’t be squared with practical detector technology. The three 2022 physics laureates found ways to circumvent those difficulties, and to advance studies of entanglement firmly into the realm of experimental science." It is important to note that all of the progress that has been made in quantum information science and quantum technologies owes a huge debt to all of these pioneers that dared to seriously ask such a fundamental question about reality, and who were not dissuaded by accusations of the worthlessness of their research by many of their influential contemporaries. Want to Learn More? To learn more about: the "fascinating world of quantum computing," check out the Qureka! Box. quantum investment, check out The Quantum Insider Quantum Intelligence Platform. the quantum marketplace, check out the Quantum Economic Development Consortium (QED-C). US quantum development, check out National Quantum Initiative.

  • Weekly Takeaways-May 5, 2023

    Theme of the Week Security vs. Resilience, and Why You Need Both There is a difference between resilience and security. A resilient network is resistant to outages; a secure network is resistant to eavesdropping. For any network, including satellite systems, these are two different design considerations. Security Security comes from the CIA triad: protecting against outsiders getting access to (confidentiality), modifying (integrity), and disrupting access to your information (availability, which is also a component of resiliency). RF links from satellites are subject to eavesdropping (breaking confidentiality), spoofing (integrity), and jamming (removing availability). Security is achieved primarily through sophisticated encryption and anti-jamming techniques (changing power levels and frequency). But security is always a game of one-upmanship. Even proving your secure network is actually secure is a challenge. This is the promise of quantum communications: leveraging the laws of physics to ensure a secure link, a topic that was discussed at a recent QED-C webinar focused on Network Security. Resilience At its simplest definition, resilience is the ability to withstand difficulties. For a system architecture, the US Air Force defines resiliency as the ability "to continue providing required capabilities in the face of system failures, environmental challenges, or adversary actions." There is a growing recognition that our satellite systems, including GPS, are vulnerable because they "were designed for a peaceful, benign environment without a threat." But those days are over with the recent scary advancements in anti-satellite weapons. Moving towards resilient space systems is now a priority (see below). It should be noted that for position, navigation, and timing (PNT) users, assurance is also critical. This means maintaining multiple sources in case one part of the system is compromised. Last Week's Theme: Back on the Horse Industry News Recently leaked documents noted that China has the capability “to hold key U.S. and Allied space assets at risk” if there was a “conflict with Taiwan.” The Center for Strategic & International Studies released their “Seven Critical Technologies for Winning the Next War” that includes quantum and space-based technology, including “alternatives to GPS systems." The US Department of Defense (DoD) plans to “normalize space as an operational domain” after a space strategic review found that China was a “pacing challenge.” In the wake of the launch of their third quantum satellite, China talked about their plans for "a global, all-day quantum communication network" that includes: Three to five small QKD satellites in sun-synchronous orbits that provide links between cities. MEO-to-GEO satellites with 600mm diameter optical telescopes for intercontinental quantum communications. These satellites will link to compact ground stations. France officially launched their FranceQCI Quantum Communications Infrastructure project led by Orange and co-funded by the European Commission EuroQCI initiative. “The short answer is yes, we're in a space race to get to the Moon with China,” according to NASA. They are on the case with a “Moon-to-Mars Architecture Definition Document” with an “architecture to return humans to the moon as a step towards eventual missions to Mars.” The DoD prepared a “Rapid Response to Emergent Technology Advancement or Threats” proposal that would grant them “the ability to begin development of new-start programs up to their preliminary design review level of maturity.” ‘Smart cities’ can be ‘almost anything you want,’ according to mayors from the U.S. and Canada. Who invented the measurement of time? Conferences Commercialising Quantum Global, May 17 - 19, London UK European Navigation Conference, May 31 - June 2, Noordwijk, The Netherlands Joint Navigation Conference, June 12 - 15, San Diego, CA Quantum 2.0 Conference, June 18 - 22, Denver, CO Q4I, June 27 – 29, Rome, New York Small Satellite, August 5 – 10, Logan, Utah Euroconsult, September 11 – 15, Paris, France APSCC, October 10 – 12, KL, Malaysia ITSF, Oct 30 – Nov 2, Antwerp, Belgium UK National Quantum Technologies Showcase 2023, Nov 2, London, UK SLUSH, Nov 30 – Dec 1, Helsinki, Finland The More You Know... A lot of attention is focused on security, but resiliency is even more critical for satellite systems. After all, what is the point of security if there are no communications? Satellites in particular are sitting ducks, and not just against anti-satellite missiles. The US Space Force chief of space operations recently described “an incredibly sophisticated array of threats” that includes jamming, spacecraft that can grapple other satellites, lasers that can dazzle them, cyberattacks, and even “nesting dolls,” or satellites that release others that spread out and track adversaries’ spacecraft. This was echoed in a recent US DOD Directive that outlined concerns “about the vulnerability of GPS systems to attack or interference," noting that adversaries "already have a variety of counterspace weapons that could degrade or disrupt GPS satellites and associated systems and impede U.S. military operations.” The solution? There is no magic technology that ensures resilience. Instead, it requires proper system design. Resiliency in networks can best be achieved through a "belts and suspenders" approach that embraces disaggregation and redundancy. The head of the Space Development Agency described his idea of a resilient satellite architecture of a large quantities of satellites in different orbits: “We'll put up hundreds and hundreds of satellites…[that] are more affordable than the missiles that you need to shoot them down.” China has also embraced resiliency with their BeiDou system. It already consists of 42 satellites in a mix of MEO, GEO, and inclined GEO orbits. Their vision is to expand to a "space segment, a ground segment and a user segment," with a 120-satellite low earth orbit (LEO) constellation, Loran-C, inertial sensors, and future systems like quantum navigation.

  • Weekly Takeaways-June 2, 2023

    Theme of the Week The Need for Secure Time We all have a general idea about what it means to be secure. If you boil it down, security relies on meeting three key elements: confidentiality, integrity, and availability. Securing data is the focus of a multi-trillion dollar cybersecurity industry and the push towards a zero trust architecture. But what about securing time? Considering that all networks, financial transactions, and power grids need a common time reference, and a widespread disruption of that time source would be catastrophic. Confidentiality isn’t a concern; after all, you want everyone to know the time. But availability – having access to that time reference – and integrity - being assured the time is correct – are very important. For most commercial users, this time reference is sourced via satellite through RF signals that can be easily jammed (removing integrity) and spoofed (removing authentication). Fortunately, authentication concerns can be addressed through quantum communications. Quantum communication systems that manipulate the quantum properties of photons were developed for the secure distribution of encryption keys, known as quantum key distribution (QKD). The hardware and some of the underlining security protocols developed for QKD can also be applied for secure time distribution, effectively creating a trusted and authenticated time reference (see below). This opens the door to a whole new paradigm for a future secure time network. Last Week's Theme: Security vs. Resilience, and Why You Need Both Industry News Some analysts believe that China would act early to disrupt GPS and other satellites in case of a conflict, as described in a set of wargames that claim that “the threat of an attack on GPS could be enough to deter America from defending Taiwan.” It’s not just MEO satellites like GPS that are getting jammed in Ukraine – Russia is also jamming LEO satellites like Starlink. The director of the US National Coordination Office for Space-Based PNT highlighted the need for a commercial solution to augment GPS: “The U.S. has long held the position that high-accuracy, precise point positioning services should be provided by commercial services...the commercial market is best suited to adapt to those changing customer needs and provide the best product.” Hackers tied to China were reported to have compromised critical U.S. cyber infrastructure, according to Microsoft and a National Security Agency bulletin. The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency is developing a Lunar Reference Frame as “a lunar geodetic system that will guide future visitors around the moon’s surface as accurately and safely as GPS does on Earth.” Two major quantum initiatives were recently announced: Germany released a 3B Euro national quantum plan “Handlungskonzept Quantentechnologien” and Australia announced a National Quantum Strategy. It has been reported that the increase in solar storms is disrupting GPS and satellite communications, and could even impact the satellites themselves. Now there is a new concern: volcanoes. The recent Tonga volcano caused plasma bubbles in the ionosphere that “interfered with satellite communications.” Conferences European Navigation Conference, May 31 - June 2, Noordwijk, The Netherlands Quantum 2.0 Conference, June 18 - 22, Denver, CO Q4I, June 27 – 29, Rome, New York Small Satellite, August 5 – 10, Logan, Utah Euroconsult, September 11 – 15, Paris, France APSCC, October 10 – 12, KL, Malaysia ITSF, Oct 30 – Nov 2, Antwerp, Belgium UK National Quantum Technologies Showcase 2023, Nov 2, London, UK SLUSH, Nov 30 – Dec 1, Helsinki, Finland The More You Know... Secure Time through Quantum Communications Time distribution networks rely on “transferring reference clock synchronization from one point to another, often over long distances.” Over global distances this is achieved via RF signals from a global navigation satellite systems like GPS (check out this site for a good explanation of how these systems work). The satellite clock provides the time reference that is sent to the receiver via a RF signal. This signal contains a pseudorandom code (sequence of ones and zeros) that is also known by the receiver. The offset between the satellite code and the receiver code is then used to calculate the difference between the receiver and satellite clocks (or, conversely, the distance between the receiver and satellite using the speed of light). The problem: this RF one-way time transfer design is fundamentally insecure. An adversary that wants to spoof the signal has two methods at their disposal: If they know the pseudorandom code, they can create their own signal. They intercept the original signal and modify it or re-transmit it with time delay. But time transfer with entangled photons eliminates these security loopholes: By replacing the pseudorandom code with random entangled photons, thereby eliminating the possibility that an adversary would be able to create their own signal. By eliminating the ability to measure and re-transmit the quantum signal due to the no-cloning theorem. This eliminates concerns about the authentication of the time reference. The integrity of the time reference is addressed by building a resilient network.

  • Weekly Takeaways-June 15, 2023

    Theme of the Week Time is Money On August 1611, a clock chimed over the newly opened Amsterdam Stock Exchange. While it wasn't the world's first financial market, it was considered the first modern stock exchange. The key difference? Time. Prior to this the markets weren’t well regulated so the city dictated a limited trading window, making it “easier for buyers to find sellers and vice versa” which “led to a vast expansion of liquidity in the marketplace.” Clocks weren’t only about marking the opening and closing of the exchange – they also made sure everything is above board. A timestamp is necessary to mark the sequence of a financial transaction and prevent traders from unfairly jumping the queue. But this only works if everyone agrees on the time, which drove the advancement of early clocks and synchronization networks (see below). We have long since moved on from real, physical trading floors where people barter face-to-face. The financial market today is a disperse and complex entity that is regulated by time. This is even more challenging with the emergence of algorithm and high-frequency trading (HFT) that automate transactions at computer speeds. Some of the toughest regulations "to increase transparency" by demanding verifiable timestamps could be enacted with the European Markets in Financial Instruments Directive, also known as MiFID II. While the regulations are still in work, their current iteration demands timestamps for transactions that are synchronized to UTC down to one millionth of a second. So the drive for accurate and secure time synchronization continues. Last Week's Theme: The Need for Secure Time Industry News GPS jamming from Russia caused outages and disrupted commercial flights in Estonia and Finland, with some speculation that the jamming was meant to disrupt drone attacks in Moscow. Meanwhile, the European Union Aviation Safety Agency is warning operators of an increase in jamming or spoofing of GPS and other global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). The US General Accountability Office (GAO) released a GPS Modernization report titled “Space Force should Reassess Requirements for Satellites and Handheld Devices” citing delays with delivery of key ground, space, and user equipment, including M-Code. India is now looking to launch their own GNSS, joining the US (GPS), Russia (GLONASS), Europe (Galileo), China (BeiDou), Japan (QZSS), and UK. China Telecom announced that it is investing 3 billion yuan ($434M) to create China Telecom Quantum Information Technology Group “for developing quantum technology and promoting quantum throughout the country”. In the light of Russian hacking of ViaSat and infiltration of satellite networks, the Space Systems Cybersecurity Standard working group met to discuss cybersecurity for space systems as governments “are dedicating more resources to protecting space systems such as GPS, space-based imaging and the satellites that provide internet service around the world over concerns that one successful cyberattack could have catastrophic consequences.” The US State Department released a Strategic Framework for Space Diplomacy to “advance continued U.S. space leadership" and promote "international use of U.S. space capabilities, systems, and services.” China is looking to put up its own 13,000 satellite ‘Guowang’ mega-constellation as their response to Starlink, Kuiper, E-Space, and other mega-constellations. What is a quantum network? This article provides an overview of the EPB Quantum Network. Conferences Quantum 2.0 Conference, June 18 - 22, Denver, CO Q4I, June 27 – 29, Rome, New York World of Quantum 2023, June 27 - 30, Munich, Germany Small Satellite, August 5 – 10, Logan, Utah Euroconsult, September 11 – 15, Paris, France APSCC, October 10 – 12, KL, Malaysia ITSF, Oct 30 – Nov 2, Antwerp, Belgium UK National Quantum Technologies Showcase 2023, Nov 2, London, UK SLUSH, Nov 30 – Dec 1, Helsinki, Finland The More You Know... Advancements in clocks – and their synchronization – have historically been driven by business. Early sundials, water clocks, and pendulum clocks helped organize early shopkeepers and trade. By the 1800s, the opportunity for maritime trade drove the development of the marine chronometer, the Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) standard, and synchronization using time balls as a visual cue “to enable tall ships in the Thames to set their marine chronometers.” A few decades later, railroads drove advancements in synchronizing stations to railway time" using telegraph. This led to a GMT synchronization service for stock exchange, banks and businesses “who required standardised time to prove their compliance with licensing laws.” Today, all modern commerce, financial transactions, and communications get their time from GPS. Which is ironic, because GPS was not developed or maintained for this - it was intended for military use. As such, the needs of the financial markets aren't being met with this service. Strict financial regulations for timing that can be traced to an authenticated source are creating a new market for time synchronization: In the US, a recent Executive Order directed the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to provide a fee-based Time over Fiber service to businesses that want to remove “dependence on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)”. In Japan, the National Institute of Information and and Communications Technology (NICT) offers time dissemination services over leased line and telephone for businesses. In the UK, the National Timing Centre (NTC) is starting to offer NPLTime to provide “MiFID II compliant reporting” and “accurate time stamping.” Commercial options like the Deutsche Börse High Precision Timestamp (HPT) Service are also in development. These systems rely on direct terrestrial lines to the authenticated time source, which is still not completely secure. What is needed is a global time distribution system that is provably secure.

  • Weekly Takeaways-Yuri's Night Edition

    Happy Yuri's Night! Yuri’s Night commemorates when Yuri Gagarin became the first human in space on April 12, 1961. Since that moment when we slipped the surly bonds of Earth, the space era can be broken into three distinct epochs: The Space Race The early decades were dominated by the space race between the US and USSR, when space missions were developed exclusively by government agencies. The Large Commercial Operators By the 1980s, commercial space companies were starting to form around creating commercially-viable business outside just government contracts. This era saw the rise of large satellite operators like Intelsat, which was originally formed as an International Government Organization, and PanAmSat, the scrappy operator determined to break Intelsat’s monopoly. Unfortunately, a conservative mindset, expensive launches, and the failure of the first LEO constellations in the late 90s helped chill the momentum towards truly commercial space companies. The New Space Era But that changed in the 21st century when adventurous venture-backed space startups, like SpaceX, Skybox, Planet Labs, and ABS, showed that space could be innovative - and lucrative. This drew in new investment and created an explosion of new space companies, growing from practically nothing in 2010 to $272B invested in nearly 1800 companies today. But more importantly, it enabled a virtuous cycle that brought cheap access to space, with launch prices falling from tens of thousands of dollars to a few hundred dollars per kilogram. What does the Future Hold? The commercial sector continues to see companies exiting, maturing, forming around novel business plans, and developing space-terrestrial hybrid networks. And as commercial space takes over activities traditionally done by government agencies, these agencies can focus on science and ground-breaking missions like the James Webb Space Telescope and Artemis program. This, in turn, has enabled a new space race, this time to bring us common folk to orbiting space stations, the moon, and even Mars. Yuri Gagarin would be impressed. Last Week's Theme: A Chain is only as Strong as its Weakest Link Industry News Even though “China has a 'stunning lead' over the US" in most quantum technologies, the US is still considered to be more advanced in quantum computers. But the US Department of Commerce is worried that they could catch up. The US Department of Energy has identified the development of quantum technologies as a priority “for electrical grid efficiency and sustainability efforts.” The US Navy also has their own quantum research for “a vision of a Navy equipped with even more secure communications networks, more advanced sensors, and the faster threat detection and response that comes with them.” Concerns about the vulnerability of GPS and other satellites continue, with some believing the solution may come from commercial space: The Director of National Intelligence 2023 Threat Assessment report has concerns that China has a GPS backup and“enough anti-satellite weapons in space within the next two or three years to disable all GPS satellites at once…Many analysts believe that GPS will be the first thing to fall in a conflict with China.” The Department of Defense CIO: “Our potential adversaries also know how much we rely on GPS.The adversary is going to try to come at it on day one of any potential conflict.” The US White House “Maintaining U.S. Preeminence in Low Earth Orbit" strategy has five objectives, including “advancing groundbreaking science and technology” by promoting “transformational R&D.” The director of the Space Development Agency believes that we need resiliency using different orbits, anti-jamming technologies, and large quantities of cheap satellites: “We'll put up hundreds and hundreds of satellites…[that] are more affordable than the missiles that you need to shoot them down.” Remember the opening scene in Contact when the first signals from Earth were received by extraterrestrials? Well, a paper suggests that the Starlink constellation is that signal. China held their first Extraterrestrial Construction Conference “dedicated to discussing plans to build a crewed base on the moon.” The More You Know... GPS has been the gold standard for global position and timing for nearly three decades. It is estimated that there are over 6.5 billion GPS receivers in the world – nearly one for every person on Earth. But that commonality is also a weakness, as it makes it difficult to change. If you had the freedom to create a competing system, you may end up with China's BeiDou, which has optical links, two-way time transfer, Global Short Message Communication and Search-and-Rescue Services. Even though it was only fully operational a few years ago, BeiDou has more satellites and ground stations than GPS to give it additional coverage, accuracy and resiliency. And they have announced plans to provide “global decimeter-level positioning and navigation” (compared to a few meters), and “underwater, indoor and deep space coverage.” That isn’t to say there aren’t plans to improve on GPS. But most of these improvements are focused on military users.

  • Weekly Takeaways-February 3, 2023

    It's Lunar Time! Over fifty years since humans last visited the moon, Space Race part II is underway (see below). At stake: claiming the high value polar real estate where there is ice, sun, and a view of Earth. But first you need a lunar GPS to guide the rovers; NASA and European Space Agency are on the case. But what time do you use on the moon? The obvious choice: the same as Earth time. Unfortunately, general relativity means that a "lunar clock would gain about 56 microseconds over 24 hours" compared to an Earth clock. And regular synchronization through multiple hops across 240,000 miles is a challenge. The other option is an independent lunar time based on master clocks on the moon or the lunar GPS. This means that the Earth and moon clocks will diverge so a lunar resident will have a slightly different birthday than their Earthbound twin. And even local clocks would vary based on location due to the moon's lumpy gravitational field. In any case, a lunar time synchronization network is needed. Last Week's Theme: The Last 500 Feet Industry News Last month the General Accounting Office (GAO) released their report “GPS Disruptions: DOT Could Improve Efforts to Identify Interference Incidents and Strengthen Resilience" that "found that DOT's process for identifying incidents doesn't produce accurate or complete information and isn't documented.” A recently launched Chinese satellite named Shijian 23 has “apparently released an object into orbit alongside it” that could be “used together with the parent satellite for on-orbit testing.” May be nothing, but it is strange “that initial reports…listed two additional satellites Shiyan 22A and 22B, as payloads aboard the launch. An updated story from Xinhua a day later omitted reference to the latter pair.” How do you protect vulnerable satellites from anti-satellite missiles or other on-orbit threats? With a “satellite bodyguard.” US Congress and the FCC announced an Energy & Commerce Committee hearing focused on “ensuring America continues to lead in the burgeoning satellite communications industry…The satellite industry is growing at a record pace, but here on the ground our regulatory frameworks for licensing have not kept up.” The NASA Psyche asteroid probe includes a Deep Space Optical Communications (DSOC) payload that will be NASA’s “first demonstration of optical communications beyond the Earth-Moon system.” Conferences Workshop on Synchronization and Timing Systems, March 13 - 16, Vancouver, Canada Satellite 2023, March 13 - 16, Washington DC Space Symposium, April 17 - 20, Colorado Springs, CO The More You Know... There is a new space race underway between the US, Europe, and China for the moon. NASA recently completed the Artemis mission with plans to get to the moon “as early as 2025 or 2026." Europe, meanwhile, is planning a lunar lander “capable of routinely dispatching science payloads and cargo to the Moon throughout the 2030s.” China also laid out their ambitious lunar exploration plans that includes the: Chang'e 3 mission launched in 2013 that includes the Yutu rover. Queqiao relay satellite launched in 2018. Chang'e 4 mission launched in 2019 that includes the Yutu 2 rover that recently released some impressive images and a number of discoveries and has been tracked by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Chang'e 5 mission launched in 2020 which collected lunar samples and delivered them to Earth. Queqiao-2 lunar communications relay satellite planned for 2024. Chang'e 6 mission planned for late 2024 that “will attempt to collect samples from the far side of the moon, within the South Pole-Aitken Basin.” Chang'e 7 mission planned for 2026, to include an “orbiter, lander, rover and a small, flying detector that can move into shadowed craters to hunt for evidence of water ice,” in the southern pole and far side of the moon. It will also carry a second, smaller rover for the United Arab Emirates. Chang'e 8 mission planned for 2028 to “test technologies for 3D printing and for using local resources.” International Lunar Research Station (ILRS) planned for the 2030s that “will initially be robotic but is intended to be capable of hosting astronauts for long-term stays from around 2035.” Also in the mix: commercial lunar exploration startups like ispace, Astrobotic Technology, Intuitive Machines, and SpaceIL.

  • Weekly Takeaways-February 15, 2023

    The Server Lights Are Big and Bright Deep in the heart of Texas, they are building new power plants - for data centers. Over 200MW of capacity, enough to power a small city, is being built to handle our social media addiction. It has been estimated that 30 minutes on Netflix is equivalent to driving four miles. And the problem is only getting worse. But there is a solution - better synchronization. Yes, more accurate time synchronization in data centers improves efficiency and reduces power consumption. A Facebook and NVIDIA study found that a synchronization improvement of 80x made a distributed database run 3x faster, a huge improvement. They created the Time Appliances Project with the mission statement: “Time is a key element to get the highest efficiency in a distributed system. The performance of a distributed system depends on the synchronization of its elements.” The relation between synchronization and efficiency is not that intuitive, so the simple analogy: distributed databases work by sending and receiving data. The data goes through lots of doors, and opening these doors takes energy. Waiting for the doors to open and close reduces efficiency, which can be reduced if they are synchronized. Last Week's Theme: Teamwork Industry News It is well known that quantum computers could one day break modern public key encryption, but not for a while. A recent paper by Chinese researchers claims that could occur sooner than expected, though not everyone is convinced. In any case, the US government “has already asked federal agencies to upgrade to quantum-safe encryption in their operations.” A recent Oak Ridge National Laboratory study posits that “satellites could enable more efficient, secure quantum networks.” Quantum Telescopes could improve on normal optical telescopes by using “interferometry, a technique where multiple telescopes gather light, which is then combined to create a more complete picture.” But interferometry has challenges that can be “overcome by relying on quantum mechanics. Rather than relying on optical links, they propose how the principle of quantum entanglements could be used to share photons between observatories,” according to a recent paper. The Department of Defense released a Small Business Strategy that includes “focusing on reducing barriers to entry, increasing set-aside competitions, and leveraging programs to grow the industrial base.” Even as overall investment declined last year, investment in seed-stage startups actually increased, according to PitchBook. Same with new space investment; seed investment actually increased in 2022 according to the Seraphim Space Report. Conferences Royal Institute of Navigation LEO PNT Workshop, March 1, London Workshop on Synchronization and Timing Systems, March 13 - 16, Vancouver, Canada Satellite 2023, March 13 - 16, Washington DC Space Symposium, April 17 - 20, Colorado Springs, CO Commercialising Quantum Global, May 17 - 19, London UK Quantum 2.0 Conference, Denver, CO, June 18 - 22 The More You Know... Do you like mysteries? Then check these out: The mystery of the Chinese Spy (Weather?) Balloon and Subsequent UFOs seems to be a case of “you won’t find what you aren’t looking for.” These objects were all at an altitude that is (usually) not well monitored and moving too slow to get picked up by traditional radar. But the US military is “developing a sensor network” to “be on the lookout for these kinds of capabilities.” The case of the Green Lights over Hawaii may have been solved by Japanese astronomers who believe it came from a Chinese satellite. Solved! The case of the Texas/Oklahoma GPS Outages that occurred “only on normal workdays" was solved by an amateur sleuth. Stanford University PhD candidate Zixi Liu discovered that the outages were reported by military training aircraft and their "aerobatics caused the airplanes’ navigation receivers to intermittently lose lock on signals from GPS satellites.” Zixi is also investigating the Dallas-Fort Worth GPS Outage that disrupted air traffic for over 24 hours in October. So far, the source of the disruption has not been identified. The similar case of the 33 hour Denver International Airport GPS Outage was investigated by professionals: the Department of Homeland Security. But their report was inconclusive. The case of January 26, 2016, or the Day the World (Almost) Stood Still, has been solved. In the early morning hours emergency radios went offline in the US and Canada, and communications and digital broadcasts around the world started to fail. Even power grids started to malfunction as network engineers scrambled frantically to prevent a global communication meltdown. The culprit: a 13-millisecond error due to a ground software glitch when a GPS satellite was decommissioned. No mystery that GPS needs a commercial alternative!

  • Weekly Takeaways-February 7, 2023

    Theme of the Week Teamwork The next "G" is coming. 6G is expected to be "100 times faster than the peak speed of 5G" and transform “the way we live and work.” But you can’t get there with existing technology and spectrum – some new tricks are needed. One of those tricks: increase the number of base stations. But these base stations have to be closely synchronized to avoid handover problems. Another trick: directed signals using beamforming from multiple antennas at one location (MIMO) or different locations (COMP). This also requires very tight synchronization for phase alignment. Yet another option in the 6G playbook: connecting to multiple base stations, instead of just one (TDD). This also requires close synchronization between base stations to ensure transmit and receive data don’t interfere with each other. All of these technologies have a common thread: multiple elements working together. And these elements need to be in sync. Last Week's Theme: It's Lunar Time Check out our Start Engine raise and own your own piece of Xairos! Industry News Why use a spy balloon instead of a satellite? Cost and flexibility. Though it may seem easy to destroy a high-altitude balloon, it is worth noting that satellites can also be destroyed with anti-satellite missiles or even hunter satellites. Because of this there is concern that any future conflict will extend to space. A Space Force official also expressed concern about the cyber vulnerability of satellites, citing the Russian hacks of the ViaSat and Starlink satellites and jamming around Ukraine: “Right out of the gate, we saw both sides attacking satellite operations to degrade command and control. We see a lot of GPS interference to degrade those kinds of capabilities.” A new International Council of Quantum Industry Associations was recently announced as a joint effort between the US Quantum Economic Development Consortium (QED-C), Quantum Industry Canada (QIC), Japan's Quantum Strategic Industry Alliance for Revolution (Q-STAR) and European Quantum Industry Consortium (QuIC). Some Google Maps users have been reporting a "Searching for GPS" error but it seems to be limited to Android Auto. Conferences Workshop on Synchronization and Timing Systems, March 13 - 16, Vancouver, Canada Satellite 2023, March 13 - 16, Washington DC Space Symposium, April 17 - 20, Colorado Springs,CO Commercialising Quantum Global, May 17 - 19, London UK The More You Know... One nice side effect of moving to 5G and 6G is the development of location and positioning projects and standards, including: A recent NASA PNT Workshop showed off developments with interconnected drones and flying taxis. A Netherlands “SuperGPS” research project evaluated “accurate positioning and time distribution like GPS" using synchronized base stations because “perfect timing means more precise positioning.” An Australian 5G Positioning Testbed project between GMV, FrontierSI, Ericsson and Optus claimed "a key step forward for the use of 5G technology for high accuracy positioning." A UK Digital Aviation Research and Technology Centre (DARTeC) project at Cranfield University that includes Inmarsat, Boeing, Saab, and Thales, is looking into digital aviation technology. A Japan Tohoku University research project looked at using the SoftBank cell network to “evaluate its quality in monitoring crustal deformation” for early earthquake detection. A Swedish paper claims that positioning and sensing in 6G could “support new use case families with extreme performance requirements,” but “ranging accuracy degrades mainly due to timing errors.” All of these projects highlighted the need for accurate synchronization between the beacons.

  • Weekly Takeaways-January 24,2023

    The Last 500 Feet Recently NASA hosted a Position, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Workshop dedicated to the “last 500 feet.” While GPS and other satellite navigation systems work well on the open road and high seas, they don’t work well in large cities, urban canyons, and inside buildings. And this is where accurate positioning is needed for self-driving cars, flying taxis, and delivery drones. This is the "last 500 feet" problem. One solution: move the PNT signals closer to the ground. Terrestrial beacons can deliver high-power RF signals and be optimally concentrated near traffic lanes. But these beacons require very accurate time synchronization. Last Week's Theme: ...Looking Forward Industry News A flurry of new US government reports were recently released: A Department of Homeland Security (DHS) report on the 33 hour GPS outage at Denver International Airport was finally released, but didn’t explain what caused the outage. A US Government Accountability Office (GAO) report documents the US government's “head in the sand” approach to assessing GPS jamming. A National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) report outlines US government quantum plans and funding. In response to Russia’s satellite hacking the Aerospace Corporation developed a Space Attack Research and Tactic Analysis (SPARTA) framework “to describe the unique threats hackers may pose to systems in space.” NASA also admits that there is a new space race underway. Canada announced a National Quantum Strategy including plans for the QEYSSat quantum satellite. Two new venture funding reports are out: the CB Insights “State of Venture” report (estimates $415.1B in venture funding in 2022) and the Pitchbook “2023 US Venture Capital Outlook” report (estimates $238.3B in venture funding in 2022). The More You Know... The World Economic Forum (WEF) believes that "quantum technology will exponentially accelerate the Fourth Industrial Revolution." But this raises concerns of a Quantum Divide between the 17 countries that are investing in quantum research and the 150 that are not. But the divide is even more stark when you consider that only one country, China, is responsible for half of the global funding in quantum technology. The US has since made quantum and science funding a priority, as have other western countries. These funding efforts are outlined in a National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) report, and inspired the US State Department to set up an Office of the Special Envoy for Critical and Emerging Technology “to lead development of innovative technologies like artificial intelligence and quantum information.”

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