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  • Weekly Takeaways-January 3, 2022

    Out with the Old... Towering above San Francisco is iconic Sutro Tower, a three-legged monument to obsolescence. Originally built in the 1970s to broadcast TV and radio signals throughout the hilly bay area, it has now been supplanted by cell towers, cables and fiber that provide streaming services. But it still operates. And even though few people use them, the TV signal is free. GPS, like Sutro Tower, was also built in the 1970s and provides a free* signal. And it is also obsolete. For the general user with a location app it works fine - most of the time. But, surprisingly, the majority of GPS' value is as a timing signal for communication and data networks. And it is not nearly secure, resilient or accurate enough for this application. It's time for something new. Last Week's Theme: A Present from China Industry News "Yet another government report detailing bad things that will happen because of our foolish over reliance on GPS for timing." According to a new report from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), “The impact of a long lasting, widespread GPS outage on mobile phone networks would likely be staggering.” According to this report, a "long lasting" GPS outage is only 24 hours. Which is not hard to achieve if you have the right equipment, such as this GPS jammer available on Amazon for only $14.98! In the future, we may no longer get our position from GPS - we may get them from 5G signals. At least Qualcomm thinks so. China has developed what it calls a Satellite Quantum System in a bid to combat any adversary intrusion into its power infrastructure. Chinese researchers published a paper where they described a drill using Mozi to protect its electric power grid against attacks. Remember when the Russia Channel One TV host Dmitry Kiselyov said, “if NATO crosses our red line, it risks losing all 32 of its GPS satellites at once?” Recently he upped the threat against the US and NATO, adding: “Otherwise, everyone will be turned into radioactive ash”. The More You Know... *So is the GPS signal really free? For the sake of argument let's ignore the cost to the taxpayer, which is roughly $1.8B a year. To the consumer using the location app, it is free - though only because your location data is monetized. But for the enterprise user that needs timing from GPS, the hardware and system costs are very expensive. Nearly half a million GPS-tied timing boxes are sold a year, ranging in price from a few to tens of thousands of dollars a box. A basic design meets older 4G timing standards with no holdover (backup in case of a GPS outage). More expensive designs meet newer 5G timing standards and/or provides up to 48 hour holdover. On top of this, telcos and data centers spend lots of time and capital to ensure the timing stability and performance of their networks. But they are running up against the natural (and two decade old) limits that the "free" GPS system can provide. To learn more, please email us or schedule a meeting here.

  • Weekly Takeaways-December 20,2021

    A Present from China While Russia is threatening to blow up the GPS satellites, China has taken a different tack. Like Russia, they have their own anti-satellite capabilities and a GPS alternative called BeiDou. Officially commissioned last year, BeiDou consists of 30 satellites with advanced technologies including optical links to "improve their satnav accuracy." China is now offering access to BeiDou including free receivers, starting with a recently announced "win-win cooperation" with the Arab States. Experts believe this is "part of their larger Belt and Road initiative" and "an indication of China’s ascension in the world". Space Capital and Silicon Valley Bank released "The GPS Playbook", a report on how this "space-based technology generated the largest venture outcomes in history." The National Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Advisory Board held their annual meeting. Former CIA Director of Russia Analysis and "The Russia Trap" author George Beebe presented insights on how GPS "influence geopolitics and historical examples of how technology imbalances can spark wars." US funding for quantum initiatives is expected to grow to $877 million in FY2022, based on a proposal from the U.S. National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). In addition, the recently passed Infrastructure and Investment Jobs Act provides more than $30 billion for new research and development (R&D), while the FY2022 National Defense Authorization Act would increase defense R&D funding to $118 billion. One day there will be a quantum internet, and it will be space-based. New video posts: QURECA Quantum Pitch Competition 2021 Highlights and Quantum.Tech Different Approaches to Getting Started on your Quantum Journey Previously we highlighted online quantum and timing and synchronization resources. Here are some quantum communication articles for your holiday reading list: Quantum Tech Made Simple, blog post by Xairos' Quantum Scientist Freya Wilson Quantum Cryptography Demystified: How It Works in Plain Language, ExtremeTech Explainer: What is Quantum Communication?, MIT Technology Review Quantum Communications: A Primer And if you need a stocking stuffer, here are some good introductory books about quantum physics: Beyond Weird: Why Everything You Thought You Knew about Quantum Physics Is Different, by Philip Ball Through Two Doors at Once, by Anil Ananthaswamy The Theoretical Minimum: What You Need to Know to Start Doing Physics, by Leonard Susskind

  • Weekly Takeaways-December 13, 2021

    Error! Filename not specified. Distributed Systems Need Better Timing The need for accurate timing cuts across multiple sectors, but there seems to be a common thread: the trend towards distributed architectures. Consider distributed databases, distributed computing, distributed communication networks, distributed sensor arrays, and distributed controls. Generally speaking, distributed systems offer resiliency and efficiency but require low latency and better synchronization. Do you think the GPS architects are planning for this? We are. The Quantum Economic Development Consortium (QED-C) released a report to help organizations prepare for a "“post-quantum” world when sufficiently advanced quantum computers can break the encryption standards upon which our modern world greatly depends." The National Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Advisory Board held their annual meeting. Former CIA Director of Russia Analysis and author of the "The Russia Trap" George Beebe presented his insights on how GPS could "influence geopolitics and historical examples of how technology imbalances can spark wars." A recent "Beyond Silicon Valley" report from Revolution ROTR and PitchBook noted that the "proportion of early-stage VC dollars going to Bay Area startups... is on pace to be below 30% for the first time in more than 10 years." Last week we highlighted resources to learn about quantum technologies ahead of the holidays. There are also a plethora of sites available to learn about timing and synchronization. For data center timing, the Time Appliances Project is a good starting point. Their site has an extensive set of online articles and the recent 2021 OCP Global Summit presentations. To learn about timing for telecommunications, the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS) is host to white papers and the upcoming Workshop on Synchronization and Timing Systems. A similar organization, the International Timing & Sync Forum (ITSF), is holding their next conference in November and provides access to presentations from previous conferences.

  • Weekly Takeaways-December 6, 2021

    You Better Watch Out Two weeks ago the Russians launched an extremely destructive and unnecessary anti-satellite missile. Two months ago Russia started covertly amassing troops at the Ukraine border. Coincidence? Last week Russia made the claim that their new 'Star Warrior' missiles could obliterate our GPS satellites ahead of a possible invasion of the Ukraine. And it wasn't subtle; the direct quote from Russia Channel One TV host Dmitry Kiselyov: “if NATO crosses our red line, it risks losing all 32 of its GPS satellites at once.” What is the red line, you ask? Maybe, just maybe, this is a thinly-veiled threat that if Russia invades the Ukraine, and NATO responds, they will cripple Western communications and power by disrupting GPS. And they don't need the 'Star Warrior' to wreak havoc - they can simply blind or jam the GPS satellites. After all, our satellites are attacked "every single day." So be good for goodness sake! China has their own satellite navigation system called BeiDou as a counterpart to GPS. They just announced the addition of optical link capabilities to increase communication bandwidth and improve “satnav accuracy by a factor of 6 to 40 by synchronizing the satellites’ atomic clocks with laser beams.” Hmmm, who else do we know that is developing optical links for improved timing? The recently released "State of the Space Industrial Base 2021" report prepared by the US Space Force, Defense Innovation Unit, and Air Force Research Laboratory argued that "Space is Critical Infrastructure - Our space assets are not only infrastructure, they are infrastructure critical to the functioning of our economy and society....They synchronize our power grid. They synchronize, coordinate and secure our financial transactions." Is SpaceX going bankrupt? Not likely - seems like a threat to motivate the employees. But it is worth recalling that 13 years ago SpaceX and Tesla - now worth $100B and $1T respectively - were both a week away from failing. Do you want to impress friends and family at holiday parties with your quantum knowledge? A good starting point: the entertaining and educational "Why Quantum Computing Deserves Your Attention, But Especially Now" webinar hosted by the "QC enthusiasts" at UC Berkeley. Skip ahead to a quantum computing overview at 41:50 and The Quantum Frontier at 2:09:40. Then download two free e-books: the first chapter of "Q is for Quantum" by Terry Rudolph and "Understanding Quantum Technologies" by Olivier Ezratty. Once you become an expert you can join the EntangledQuery Q&A platform and follow Quantumapalooza.

  • Weekly Takeaways-November 29, 2021

    One of the key takeaways from the "Protecting GPS Satellites, Signals, and America" conference last week was that the lack of a GPS alternative invites attack. China and Russia long ago recognized the world's reliance on GPS, so they built their own independent system. That they have their own alternatives in place "and the US does not is worse than a critical vulnerability. It actually invites exploitation and attack."According to the panelists, “We need to get the bullseye off GPS."And they agree on the way to do this: incentivize private industry to build an alternative. A recent Deloitte report “Chinese Threats in the Quantum Era” highlighted that "beginning in 2016, the nation unleashed a 13-year plan to become a top global innovator in multiple technology areas, including quantum. That led to multibillion dollar investments to enable breakthroughs in the field—and an $11 billion National Laboratory for Quantum Information Sciences." China's leading quantum research group and QuantumCTek have been added to a US trade blacklist for "acquiring and attempting to acquire U.S.-origin items in support of military applications". QuantumCTek made the news when it had a record IPO last year. Have you ever wanted to spoof GPS? It isn't hard - just check out this presentation by the GPSPATRON CEO at the Kaspersky Industrial Cybersecurity Conference. The US has designated 16 infrastructure sectors that are considered "so vital to the United States that their incapacitation or destruction would have a debilitating effect." But, for some reason, space infrastructure is not in this Critical Infrastructure list. After the Russian ASAT test there is some momentum to change that. After all, "GPS signals are needed by 13 of the 16 critical infrastructure sectors," according to Greg Winfree, the CEO of the Texas A&M Transportation Institute.

  • Weekly Takeaways-November 22, 2021

    Last week Russia shocked the world by launching a wildly destructive anti-satellite missile. Experts speculate that their goal was to send a message that they can easily exploit our reliance on GPS. Or maybe they want to keep up with China, who launched their own anti-satellite tests and possible "satellite crushing weapon." But a recent demonstration by an IBM hacker showed that you don't need a missile to hobble our timing-based infrastructure; all you need is a Raspberry Pi. A new solution is needed. Russia's anti-satellite test "marked the first time that Russia has demonstrated an ability to strike a satellite using a missile launched from Earth." What Happens if Time Gets Hacked? At Black Hat Europe a hacker built a "simulated time-signal system using an open source tool...and ran it on Raspberry Pi outfitted with a radio-frequency identification (RFID) antenna" that "overrode the UK region's official low-frequency, radio broadcast-based clock synchronization signal." As the hacker noted: "Unlike other security issues, this risk to time-hacking isn't rooted in software or hardware vulnerabilities: It's more about an aging technology and process." CNBC’s Kate Rooney reported that 90% of all investments in quantum technology took place in last three years. Australia will invest more than $100 million in quantum technology, including $70 million to pursue partnerships with “likeminded” countries. As part of this, Australia and the US committed to work to work together to develop "a vibrant, secure, trusted and interconnected quantum ecosystem." Could quantum sensor technology usher in GPS-free navigation? Not any time soon, but work is progressing. Interesting discussions at the "Protecting GPS Satellites, Signals, and America" conference from a range of US policy experts, including the following quotes: "Some aspects of GPS are probably more critical than others, so I would submit that the timing signal is probably the single most important one, and so in having a diversity of ways of getting timing signals, either as replacement of or into a challenging environment would therefore be a higher priority on the stack. What I would not encourage is the government going out and contracting and trying to build one of these things (an alternative to GPS) itself. The government didn't pave the National Highway system. We probably should be looking for faster cycle time from the private sector, but the government can incentivize that." Dr. Scott Pace, GWU, Space Studies Institute; Former Executive Secretary, US Space Council "And when I looked at where the single points of failure were in this system, if you want to call it that, in which Russia and the United States are entangled, one that stood out immediately was our GPS vulnerability. In case we had forgotten that these systems are not invulnerable, that we are highly dependent on them, and that in the context of a confrontation between Russia and the West over a place like Ukraine, a place that the Russians believe is absolutely existentially vital to them, they wanted to remind us that that confrontation might not go the way we want it to go." George Beebe, VP for Studies, Center for the National Interest; Author “The Russia Trap” "The Department of Homeland Security has determined that GPS signals are needed by 13 of the 16 critical infrastructure sectors. But unfortunately GPS signals are very weak and easy to disrupt. Unless GPS services are quickly restored, backup timing, equipment, networks and digital broadcasts begins to desynchronize. And one of the worst impacts of a prolonged disruption is that most US telecommunications networks will be severely disabled within 24 hours." Greg Winfree, Director, Texas Transportation Institute, Former Asst Secretary, US Department of Transportation

  • Weekly Takeaways-November 15, 2021

    Before you can settle into your new moon base, you need to have an accurate moon clock. Lunar and deep space missions all need accurate time synchronization over very long distances to function properly. For one, it is key enabler for the planned Cislunar Position, Navigation and Timing (PNT) network. This isn't needed for driving directions (yet), but it is necessary for getting to the moon safely: maneuvers, rendezvous operations and docking; entry, descent, and landing; and surface operations all require accurate position and timing. Timing is also critical for lunar and deep space navigation and scientific missions, including mapping the gravity of the moon. So once you are settled in: is one day on the moon 24 hours or 29.5 Earth days? Optical communications has become commonplace on satellites, including SpaceX’s Starlink, Telesat’s Lightspeed, SpaceLink, and is a key component for our system. But these systems were enabled by NASA, who will hold a livestream Tuesday of their 1.2 Gbps GEO-to-ground Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD). Previously it was noted that there was speculation that a Chinese debris removal satellite may be a "satellite crushing weapon." Well, now a mysterious object has been spotted alongside the satellite that “could be used to test rendezvous and proximity operations, refueling experiments or manipulation using a robotic arm or other means.” And China's quantum lead was a topic at the Executing a National Technology Strategy conference. Can better timing synchronization help reduce carbon emissions? Consider that synchronization improves the efficiency of data centers reducing their energy consumption, which is estimated to account for between 1 percent to 3.5 percent of the total worldwide carbon emissions. This was discussed at last week's 2021 OCP Global Summit, where Facebook and NVIDIA claimed that a "recent test showed that making the timekeeping 80x more precise (making any time discrepancies 80x smaller) made a distributed database run 3x faster — an incredible performance boost on the same server hardware, just from keeping more accurate and more reliable time."

  • Weekly Takeaways-November 8, 2021

    Why is timing so critical for modern networks? At a simple level, it is necessary to route data - analogous to how timed traffic lights move traffic more efficiently. In the old days, all "traffic" flowed in one direction - from the broadcaster to the user. But data, like traffic, now needs to flow between multiple points through multiple intersections. Perfect synchronization means green lights with no delays, increasing the number of cars (bandwidth), reducing the length of the drive (latency), and eliminating jams (interference). But unlike your local road network, there is more incentive for data networks to improve. he push to 5G and beyond is creating complex new protocols that need better timing synchronization, such as Time Division Duplex (TDD), Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO), and beamforming. These advancements allow telcos to squeeze more bandwidth and users out of existing infrastructure - but it also requires better synchronization. The data must flow. International collaboration is critical to building a global business. To that end the US State Department released a Joint Statement with the UK on the "Cooperation in Quantum Information Sciences and Technologies" to "establish a bilateral government-to-government dialogue on the areas identified in this vision and foster a QIST R&D ecosystem." According to a recent IEEE article, the FAA Fumbled Its Response To a Surge in GPS Jamming during military tests in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. This created havoc at local airports and led to a "private jet made a wrong turn into restricted airspace over the White Sands Missile Range." Seems like our options for internet surfing continue to grow, as Boeing joins Starlink, Kuiper, Telesat, OneWeb, and O3b. Want to impress your friends with your quantum expertise? Then check out Quantumapalooza! Developed by the Harrisburg University of Science and Technology, their website provides a list of free online quantum learning resources and upcoming events.

  • Weekly Takeaways-November 1, 2021

    Who You Gonna Call? It is well known that GPS is an Achilles' heel for our modern world. All networks, communications, and power grids rely on the timing signal from GPS. But GPS goes down. A lot. And when it does go down, imagine you are the poor network engineer frantically working to keep your system online. Who do you call? Well, you can submit a report through the website. Good luck with that. What you need is a network time provider that will actually answer the phone. SES, a leading satellite operator, has set up a satellite quantum communications R&D lab. The recent launch of a secretive Chinese debris removal satellite has fueled speculation that it is actually a "satellite crushing weapon." Not that you need to actually destroy GPS satellites to disable GPS. It is trivially easy to jam a GPS signal, but spoofing - using a fake GPS signal to deceive the time and/or location at a receiver - is harder. But not that hard. Sandia Labs has developed a quantum sensor that may one day lead to “navigating without GPS.” Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Stanford University and Purdue University “developed and demonstrated a novel, fully functional quantum local area network, or QLAN” that is step “on the path toward the highly anticipated quantum internet.” The U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) released a "Quantum Computing and Communications" technology assessment report. One of the side benefits of building a space-based timing network with quantum links is that provides the foundation for a future quantum network. The GAO report estimates that small quantum networks "could be developed in the next 5 to 10 years at a cost of $50 to $100 million" and that "Quantum communications technologies that are demonstrated in the next 5 years may be foundational technologies that enable quantum networks, such entanglement distribution systems could start development."

  • Weekly Takeaways-October 25, 2021

    The Halloween Edition You wake up. Emergency and rescue radios are down. Your location app is offline and planes are grounded worldwide. You attempt to go shopping, but the credit card isn't working. The ATM is down, too. As the day progresses both cell and internet service is lost, stores and restaurants are closed, and you can't even get gas. By the next morning the power is out. The cause? GPS is down. Billions of dollars a day are lost as power, communications, business and travel grind to a halt across the world. It is well known that "kamikaze" and "kidnapper" satellites are under development, and that GPS satellites are vulnerable to blinding, jamming and interference. But we don't have to really worry, right? Right? Not according to the panelists at the Value of Space Summit, the Chief of Space Operations, or many other experts within the government and private industry. Is "China leading the pack in quantum communications"? According to this article, yes. Consider that: China "achieved a major breakthrough early this year with the world's first satellite-to-earth quantum communication network." "Quantum is a priority target of the latest five-year plan" China Telecom announced plans to "integrate quantum communications with other technologies such as 5G, big data and cloud" and "a secure quantum phone service using a dedicated SIM and 5G app." SES and the University of Luxembourg announced the creation of a joint lab that will explore the benefits of high-throughput satellite systems in the areas of next-generation networks, including quantum communications. The CERN Quantum Technology Initiative highlighted quantum initiatives from Europe's Quantum Flagship initiative, and QuantERA Programme, the UK National Quantum Technology Programme, the German Quantum Technology Programme, the Dutch National Agenda on Quantum Technology, the French Quantum Plan, and the Russia Digital Economy National Program for Quantum Technologies. The Spooky story of Einstein and quantum entanglement Everybody knows the famous Einstein quote "spooky action at a distance", that supposedly encapsulated his disbelief in quantum entanglement. But that is not exactly true. The phrase is actually a loose translation of "spukhafte Fernwirkung" from his letter to Max Born in 1947, a full decade after he discussed the concept of entanglement in the famous EPR paper. The common belief is that Einstein disagreed with the theory of entanglement because it violated the speed of light, but this is a misconception: "...the phrase “nothing can move faster than the speed of light” has plenty of exceptions; most of them have been well known since Einstein’s time... The problem is, that phrase is a poor translation of an ironclad law of physics which has no known exceptions. A better translation of the rule that Einstein’s special theory of relativity established mathematically is “nothing can influence anything else faster than light”. Or even more precisely, “you can’t send signals faster than light”... And nothing about quantum entanglement allows an exception to this rule." While Einstein was considered mistaken in his belief in hidden variables (though the jury is still out), he was still a pioneer in using thought experiments to probe the world of quantum entanglement. The strange saga of Zombie Sat All satellites are designed to be robust. After all, if a satellite breaks on orbit, you can't send out a repair crew. So they are carefully designed to operate autonomously - the original self driving vehicles. But they still need the occasional helping hand from operators that remotely guide their vehicles from thousands of km away. So what happens when their commands don't get through? Intelsat found out in April 2010 when the infamous Galaxy 15 satellite decided to stopped taking orders. Without any way to shut it down or fire thrusters, Galaxy 15 started drifting across the GEO arc, all the while cheerfully beaming towards the Earth. Fortunately, other satellites in its path could move out its way, but they could not avoid the interference. Finally, eight months later, the reaction wheels saturated and the satellite started tumbling. The solar arrays could no longer point at the sun and the batteries started to drain. Without any power the flight computer re-booted and the satellite started responding to commands again. After some checkout and software patches, the satellite was put back into service. The undead was re-born again! Is “China leading the pack in quantum communications”? According to this article, yes. Consider that: China “achieved a major breakthrough early this year with the world’s first satellite-to-earth quantum communication network.” “Quantum is a priority target of the latest five-year plan” China Telecom announced plans to “integrate quantum communications with other technologies such as 5G, big data and cloud” and “a secure quantum phone service using a dedicated SIM and 5G app.” SES and the University of Luxembourg announced the creation of a joint lab that will explore the benefits of high-throughput satellite systems in the areas of next-generation networks, including quantum communications. The CERN Quantum Technology Initiative highlighted quantum initiatives from Europe’s Quantum Flagship initiative, and QuantERA Programme, the UK National Quantum Technology Programme, the German Quantum Technology Programme, the Dutch National Agenda on Quantum Technology, the French Quantum Plan, and the Russia Digital Economy National Program for Quantum Technologies.

  • Weekly Takeaways-October 18, 2021

    The government... for now. The time you see on your phone is synchronized to a clock at the US Naval Observatory, delivered via GPS satellites through your local cell network. The US Government has been the reluctant supplier of time to the world since the digital era began. But can it (or should it) be privatized? Ask William Shatner. At 90 years old, Capt. Kirk wasn't likely to qualify for the NASA astronaut program. But fortunately for him, private industry has taken over roles once thought the exclusive domain of governments: space travel, earth observation, space surveillance, lunar exploration, and even missions to Mars have been democratized in the New Space era. Not only are they making warp-speed (pun intended!) advancements in these once-stagnant areas, but they are making money in the process. t is time for time to have a new owner. The Resilient Navigation and Timing Foundation (RNTF) just released a White Paper exhorting the US government to issue a Request for Proposal (RFP) "to procure foundational precise timing services which can support a wide variety of public and private applications across the nation" as part of a National Resilient Timing Architecture. Also pushing for this critical need is the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS), which sent letters to US Congressional leaders stating “the urgent need for funding the deployment and adoption of Alternative Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) Systems in U.S. critical infrastructure, including the U.S. telecom industry.” CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) released their Quantum Technology Initiative (CERN QTI) including a roadmap defining its quantum research goals and strategy. What is the value of time synchronization for a large data center? Ask Facebook, Google, and NVIDIA. They recently described the challenges and opportunities they are facing to improve time synchronization for distributed databases. The panel discussed how critical time synchronization is for data integrity, coherence, and efficiency within data centers.

  • Weekly Takeaways-October 11, 2021

    A Brief History of Time (Synchronization) The concept of time is as old as civilization itself. But only recently have we become obsessed with relative time, or the synchronization between clocks. In the old days time synchronization was not critical. TV and radio were broadcast on one-way analog signals and radio communications was "push-to-talk". Clocks would still drift but they were set manually. If you are old enough you may remember listening for the radio DJ to announce the time or even calling a hotline. But then we entered the digital age. Analog transmissions moved to digital modulation, and one-way broadcasts were replaced by multi-party communication and data networks. These increasingly complex networks required synchronization for the efficient movement of data, analogous to how timed traffic lights move traffic more efficiently. Fortunately, there was a timing signal available right as this transformation was occurring, courtesy of GPS. But GPS was not built for this - it was a happy accident that is well overdue for a replacement. The White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) met with representatives from quantum information technology companies, including ColdQuanta, AWS, Google, Microsoft, Boeing, Rigetti, and many others. The summit highlights the push within the US government towards "accelerating fundamental and applied uses of quantum information science, and bringing quantum technologies to fruition.” The summit was led by the National Quantum Coordination Office (NQCO), which was recently created by the National Quantum Initiative Act of 2018 and coordinates quantum activities across the US. The NQSO released a report, The Role of International Talent in Quantum Information Science, highlighting the need to bring in global quantum talent to support these efforts.

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